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ABA 1
OPAOBAHE PCCKO HTEEH EE XAPAKTEP.
CABHOCTBO AAHECTBO

1.

o o co pyccoo oya yc cee xapaep pycco peo, yo a, o pecae coo o coeopaoe ee, oopoe Pocc eyec . aae a oy, ec o ooec pyccy ee c e, o a aae aa intellectuels. Intellectuels o eeyaoo pya opeca, pee ceo yee, cae, xyo, poeccopa, earo p. Coepeo pyoe opaoae pecae coo pycca ee, oopo o paea e aaec eeya pyo ooe e ocoeo eeyae. oe pycce yee cae coce e o pce ee oo cce coa. ee copee aoaa oaec ope peoy cey co coe ocoo opao, oe eepo, co co oae pocoepae, co co oco paa oa, ae co coeopa ec oo, o oopoy cea oo o ya erea o eo o pyx coax rpy. ee a y ac eooeco, a e poeccoao ooeco pypoo, opaoaec pax coax acco, caaa o peyecy oee yypo ac opca, oe coe ceo aoo, ex oo, ea , oce ocooe, pec. o ec paoa ee, oeea ceo e po e coaoo xapaepa. Bo opy ooy XIX ea co, oop eyec poco yyp, epexo o , oya aeoae ee. o ee co xapaepe ep, cocee ce eo aco pecae. B ee ece pycce ep coepeo ooo o ee, oopoe eo ee eaoaa oep co c c pycco oo. ocoec oo oa pycc xapaep eea-peooepa aa eo e cae pycco e, xo o e peoox e.

ee xapaepa ecoeoc, pap co c coco o pa, o a ecoeoc a xapaepo pyco. ee cea a yeea a-o e, peyeceo coa, oaaac . Oa oaaa cocooc ceo e. o yco pyccoo oecoo cpo ee oaaac oopao o peaoro coao ea, o oe cococoao pa e coao eaeoc. B Pocc caoepao peoceco paaac cae paae coacece aapxpce e. Heoooc oeco eeoc pea oy, o oa a epeecea c epaypy. epaype p ace y coax oecx. ere pa pao xapaep, o a coceo . Oa a pacoe c opyae eceoc, oopy caa o, e paoaac aaeca paco opa. Kpa ea eepoc pycco ee a caoao; oo a ye oa coxpac o paeo pe, oo aoap coey eoy aay oa oa epa peceoa yepa co ep. pycco ee, oopo peoaa coae o peooe acpoe, oopa opoa eoea, eceo ceac oopoo a peo, xapaepe pa oa, oopoy co co . Pycce oaa ceo cocooc ycoe aax e ye x coeopao . Ho ycoee aax e ye pycco eee o oce cyae oa. To, o a aae o ayo eope, oeae pe, oeo o co cyae co ooceo, aco, e peeye a ceooc, y pyccx ereo pepaaoc oay, o o-o poe peooo opoe. Pycce ce co ocpa oaapo, y ceec p aax e. o ec eocao, npo cee oea, o o ae ococo yaye a peoy eococ pycco y. pycco paao ee paoaoc ooooecoe ooee cao aye. Koa pycc ee eac apco, o ap eo e ooeco eope, oeae copy, a orao, o coy e paey oo oaa, apep, copoy aapa, oao opao oopeoe ooee. Ca py pycc oco XIX ea, B. Cooe caa, o pycce c coea epy, ooay a cpao coe: eoe pooe o e, ceoaeo, o py pya. Toaapo oaec ocp epe pycco eee ca-co, ypep, eeaco, aepa, apc, apc ocoe. Pycce ooe oxo oa aee ooceoo, cyeoc copecoo poecca, epea pax cep yyp. C ca pycc . Pycca ya cpec eococ, oa e pc c paeee ceo o aeop, oa cpec Acooy ce xoe o Acooy, o peoa e epa. Ho oa eo coepae ceee, pae oocee a acooe, acoe a yepcaoe, oa oa aae o. eo pycco ye coceo epeee peoo ep a epeoe pee, a oocey acy cepy ay coao . oe ooe ocec.

e XV ee aa apoac pycco e. ep pycc eeo Pae, aop yeec eepypa . Coa Paea: ya o cpaa eoeec yea a ocpypoaa pycco aee. Pae oa a payco oco XV ea, a Boe, po, Pycco. Ho o e apeooo apae, a ore oepa oo pee. payce e peoc pycco ye pee ceo a cocpaaeoc eoeoe. Pae e o ec peocoo paa, ye cpaa apoa. Bo pe oe Paea Eaepa II a ye oxaea pe acpoe. Pae apecoa, proope a co y cepo a c aeo aopo po. Tae apecoa ae epoaocy peoc ee pyccao pocee XV ea Hoo, c-aco, xpca eoe oe yepex oecx o. Ta cpeeo o opaoae pycco ere pycco ac. epe a pycco ee a yx pocee coa, a e peo, copooac epa cpaa, po aopo.. Pae e coeo pee ooo cee paae o peeceo peooo ee pyccoo coaa. Ho XVI ee pycca c e a ee opao. Too XIX e ye eo opao c, eo caocoa. Ho o e ye eo ypee peo. Cao coae o y ac occae po opyae eceoc, po epaopco Pocc. poceee papyo capy epy paocaoe apco cae apca po oe apaee, o oy a ocoaa pycca cc.

Heoao o ooeco pyccx yypx cooox e epo oo XIX ea[1]. yype , o e o yypo cpe. oo pee ayc, o o opye o, o x e oae o e coycye. Macca pyccoo opca oeca a oe eyypa, eeecea, ea cx cx epeco. o a a ep, o oopo oop y. Opa aoo ope o ya opaae o ooeco yx, aoee yx yypx e oo pee. B aae XIX ea oxy Aecapa I Pocc epea yyp peeccac. To ooo e pycco o, oxa cecx ee e eapco. Ca Aecap I ap-ee, c ca pa, oooc pa caoepa peocoo paa, o eoe paoe e c.

Peeccac o ox pocxo oe aeo oo coe opca. Kyype ye pa o eo pya copyeca. Macoco, cec opaeoe, o oe pacpocpaeo Aecapocy oxy pao ouy ocaey po. Macoco o epo opo caoopaa oeca. B y opy aac aoee apea yxoa oo pee. Haao XIX ea o oxo papxe pycco y. Oa caa ocpo o coo poa e, yxo coa e. o a oxa yepcaa, oxa epoeccoax xpcacx oee. oa aaa opaoac pycca ceeoeoc xapaepa XIX ea. epe aoeooce o Pocc pa eocpeceoe aoece c aao. Pyccoe oepco oao Epoe opaoc c pacpe pyoopo. Ca Aecap I pycc ceeoeo. O ac c Oeo oop c o oo coao ycpoe, o oc ece c eepa. Ho o e oeao oy, o oe eo apcoa oaeoac pao peae. Pycca ya ooac XIX ey, Ho e o eococ eca pycco . a poac ey epx yyp coe pyccoro opca, oop oa cy ap, cpee acco opca. B o epxe coe yxoe epaype e, e ooooc ee eapco, anpaeoe ocooe o caoepa peocoo paa. Ho ce pocxoo ao aeo coao yeeo coe, o e oo cyeceo e pycco . Boccae eapco, oopoe ceecye o ecopc ye ac pyccoo opca, o opeeo a eycex o ecoo paaeo. ae ee eapccoo e ae coca Cp Hoae I. oa ac eapco epaac yepex ae oapxecx o. Ho ece, pecam paee eoe po eapco, aop Pycco pa, oe aa ep pycc coaco, coaco o coaco, a pac epe. B e oapyac ye a o ac ac, oopa XX ee oapyac y oyco. Ho coa ece , oeo, o yco oo pee, apap. ece pecyae, copoo apooac oe pe epaco. O e epao coe ecoy. Ho o e pe, oa pocxoo ee eapco, opoa acca pyccoo opca a eo, eo ea ecccey . Cpe pycc op caaa cy ap, copo xo ocay ocec epee, e eo e ea po ce c caoyp xoa eo ecoo. o o eae eyae epoco o. a oxa coaa x e, coaa Pyx Ooox. y e e , oope yeo coaa co oc, a eoope epo Typeea. Too oo ye, eceo peeccaco pycco eoee, ecya oooc oo ooe . y a coe cee oae ee coae ep. O nca peoe cx o e oo pycco eoepaoc. oce oae occ eapco, oce oape Hoa I ce oo ye apoca pacoa . Pycca ee ooaeo oopac paco . Oa cea ye oop po ce , po ocyapco, po ac o. Pycc yyp co oaac a eo, paae y oo ca caoepao oapxe cepxy eo acco pecca cy.

Pycca c, ecoea yya, a XIX ee ypeo cooo epoeo, e cao e po c pae, ee e ceceo aco oo. Heoooc o oec yc eocpeceoo coaoo ea pea oy, o c aoc epea epaypy c, re ce opoc cac peac oe paao. Bpaoaac epaa coaa eaeoc, e caa c peao eceoc. Pycce ce-coca, ypepca, pyoca, oa Pocc o peocoe pao caoepaa oapx. O ca pa, oaap reea eaa, oa Pocc e o ee ao ococo yyp ococa c a a oope. Pycce yype o ecoee, eec o e oa paoop cop o pox opocax eox pyax, caoax 30-x 40-x oo. epoe poyee caocoeo c caocoa XIX ea pooo aaaee, eoee ceo oapeo, o o ero e acae. O e, a ce pycce ape. Eo eoao ocpe ce c pac oo ocoeco ce. o ea oco . copocoeca ea ocoa pycco c XIX ea. aocoea pycca c pee ceo ayaac a e, e aaa Pocc ocoeoc ee y, Boco oa aa. ep pycc copoco aaae oepo e-ap ycapcoo oa ocae, ooo oy, a ep aocoe ca aeae pycc ooco Xoo oepo e-ap ooo oa. oco cop aaaea a occae po pycco cop, po pyccoo pooo pyccoo acoeo. eo epa poyo pyccy c pyccoe opeco. epe caa, o peopy epa pycc apo oe ee . K y ao pa, o o oe ee aaeco caoco c. Bc pycca c XIX ea, aa o opoca pocoepa, a aeco caoco, .e. peaa poey o o, oa Pocc aao Bocoo, yo ye epa epyc o-epoco, ococo Pyc.

aaae cy pee aao aaeco eo o po apoeco o. O pycc eoeo XIX ea epxeo yyporo co. Eo opae Pocc, pycco cop ecoe pyccoe opae. Eo aaeco o peo, oe oceyux op aaeca, o oe coycoa aoecy, e e ay, opayy oeyro cy cepo cop e e cacee . Pycca cop pecaac ey eo cca c, e paeae Bocoy, aay opaee o oep yypoo c eca, oopa xapaepa epoc ox.

Pocc aaae cae ypoo peocepeee pyx apoo. Bac yea aaaee peooepa. Ho eceoc o o o co e e-Mecpy, oay ery, c oop o epecac op o e cooo e. Kyypo papoa aaae e or ppc c e, o o opee eyypo oece, ecoeco ocyapce, oopoe ep cax e apo, e pocea eo. aaae caa c, oopy yo ca oco pyccoro caocoa, o oop o oeac, epoeoc pccoro apoa. a c oa aac ocyee pyccoro apoa, oco oa opaea pooy, pycc apo eo eoro cop e coop, e o ao coo cc. Ho oa e oe pepac ey aey, epy yyee pyccoo apoa, oa oa opaea yyey, pycc apo pa ocyec ey cc. eo a o oeaoc ocaoc pyccoo apoa ec XIX e ye ocoa aey a o, o pycc apo pa pape opoc, pe pyo pape aay, cece eo oeoc po, pep, opoc . Ta o y aaaea. Pyccoe paeco oeo a epoe opecoe npoyee pycco c oee aaaea cyace, o oepy ecoy oceecoa. aaae oae yo. oo o e Aoor cyaceeo e caae xapaepe pyccoo coa c o pycco . Oo eo cy a po, pyoe e aea . eo cy coe oeaoc, coxpaeoc e opox, eoax c, pycc apo pa caa coe opaoe coo py, co ey cc. B aaaee ae ye oe ocoooe pycce c. B coe pacoe c copeeoc, coe poece po epa pycco pycce yype pooa opac aoecy e ca . B o ooe xapaepa ypa eopa, oop ppye ec aoec oaxo. O coee aoeco c yoec coao. B o epo ac xpcac oocoa coa, yeac ae, ee a ee peoo acpoea. eop ca oo coe cxoope.


Ka caoco y eae
ao a ee yoe.

Tec pycce coa, coa oa, a oop cpa ioo Pocc. Ha aae, yy aoec oaxo, eop coa o Pocc ep, o Pocc ece c coo o poo cop.

2.

Oco aa e, epe oopoe aeo cee opeeac pycca c pycca yypa XIX ea, o e ea ee, oope ca o pycc ce. o e e oaao paero nopaa, a e oepaa XVIII ea. epaca c ocpaac ao epepa6aaac pycc c. o ocoeo yo caa po caoo, y oopx e ea ee ae oooopo orococy c, a eora e aoa eoaoa oooopo oococy c ocx yee ep. Xoo coae opaoe paocaoe oocoe, oopoe xo epepaoae o epacoro eaa. ooo ee poaa, pycca c cpec eococ eae o oee oceoaeo paao, e poa, oope ca yep . eococ xpcacoo Bocoa poooaaec paaceco papoeoc pacceeoc aaa. epe o opypoao .Kpeec cao oco pycc oo, opeeo yax pycco xapa. Pycce oyc-aec yepa eococ, oaapoc e eee paocax caoo. cxooec pycca opoocaoc ec eococ, oaapc. Pycce aa, op y peo caoo, yec ereaco, oopoe o x co e oaapo cceo c , oxaae peeo ce. Kora ec ay eeaa, o eo a ee. Pycc ooo eoe, paea ooe eaco 30-x 40-x oo, coea oaapoe eaco oaapoe eeaco ooe o ce , e oo c coao, o o, ooe yca ppo. ec, peooep o aype eepaey, oo ocoa pyccoy peooo-coacecoy poooepa, oo pe ca ocepaopo -a yee ocoe ee. O ce ce oa p pay, o ce eceoe payo.

Topeca opraoc peoo ococo c oapyac y . O oocoa cc Pocc, oy o cc apoo . Opao caoo caa a c e, o o ac occ coeopae ocooro, paocaoo a xpcaca, eeo ocoy pycco cop^^. Xo cao ca opraecx oco ye, o o ae pacoa, pape c opyae eceoc, O opa epaopcy, epocy Pocc, o e ycoa ce oa eceoc Hoa I, ac oocac oope paeo, ecop a x pacae oapx. He o eo oeo ey cceo oao apooc oaoo aoaa, paoao oxy Hoa I cae eooe ac, caoc oae .. Ccea oa apooc a ocoaa a pex pax paocae, caoepae apooc, ccea caoca paaa e p pa. Ho yx poooo. Coepeo co o, o cce oao apooc pa paea py caoepa, paocae e apooc ey . co ae, o apooc a coea peepea e xyx copo aaoo ocyapceoo acoa. Hoa I o pyccoro oepa. paocae e o e yxooe, ee-ocyapceoe pepaeoe cpco. Coce o cc p e y caoo. pee ceo o paa aco pa peooo aaa ca paoca oeoro, e caeoo e paeo copec . Tae cpec o e oo apooc, apoo y. O e o6pa pyccoo apoa ocooe o cae, oope o pca aaoy paoay ocyapeoy acoy. K ocyapcy y x o coce oe ooee, e ccee oao . Cao aocyapce, y x ec ae c aapxec ee, o ca ocyapco o ac ca . O aa oapx a o ocoa, o ye, o o eoe aapa ac, cea pexoo po, e ec apio[2]. ap e ee paa a ac, a o e ee. Ho o oa ec oy ac, oopy oo a ero apo. Pycc apo cao ca e ocyapce, Pycc apo ee pae perooe, yxooe xoe cooe o ocyapcoa ocyece oo pa. a eop poope, oeo, oy ay, o pycc apo coa eaee pe ocyapco, oaaa pap c pa e oo epa, o ex e ococx. Ho caso pa y o noco pyccoo coa, xapaepy epy ere XIX ea ce pycco epayp. Cao ocooooa oro apoeca, opoe co xapaepo pycco c XIX ea oo po peroe op. Cao ep apo, apoy pay apo x pee ceo y, coxpae paocay epy aoa ya . Cao op aa o, oopy ca opaec opa pycc yao xoceo pecca, ya c . O pee poa o pcoo paa coceoc. He ca coceoc ceo acoo, cocea e ca ypa. O opa aay ypyay, aacecy . ec o ya, o aa e, o ooy, o o cy a y o ypyao a, o e pacooac eococ . Cao ye peocx paee ey yypo ae, oope a aae cao oypo co pee erepa. Hecop a oepa ee coeo pocoepa, cao op aa coo oc, coo coec, c, coa coeopa eopaa, paa p epxoeca apoa. Xoo cox cxax oa copece pex Pocc, e oo epoco, o o-epoco Pocc ae oee peo, e .

Cao aa -. epe caa: oo yoy ycy, y ac oa o Pocc, o . ox Pocc a, pee ceo, a, pyrx . Cao aa 30-x 40-x oo paeaa ooy pyy, cop ox ex e caoax, ope e epea Xooa. oe o ooaeo paoc. Heep ec e xoe ye cpeac co co pyro K.Acao. ye, aoee yype ce pycce XIX ea e acoe, oopoe o x opaeo, o yye poo. O, cao, ea o eao oepoco Pyc, pye, aa, ea o eao aae. Ho ocepaoe opaee caoo aeoy pooy o yoe coepeoo cpo, coepeo , a e a o opaee aao aay, oop o oxo a. aa aco a pocee, aopa o aeee epec . oee epece aaa, oep pycco epepaoe aae, o peyecy payce, coae ye. Ec Pocc oaapo, eoco acacec ocpc eeaco eraco, o co e oaapo, eoco acacec ocpac ce-co . B aepe aao paaoo pa c paycoro coaa payco epayp, ocoeo op a. op a ea ooccaoe e a paoy ooao pycco yypo cpoe, a paoy pyccoro ooe cooe cpeoc yca, pyccoo poeca po ac, ycooc ecpeoc ycax. a e ocyece coao pa paaac o Ce-Coy yp. , oeo, ca pay e a aoo yee e.

B oe 40-x oo y pyccoro oea epaecoo copac a oy pyo, oop ocya coae opoc, a ooo yeo ycpoe eoeeca. oa ac pya ypepc ce-coc. e cae paae cce epeycpoca eoeeca, o xapaep ece ca p eo[3]. Hao pooo eeoc epae e aac, e peea peooo eeoc Pocc e o e oo , ce pocxoo cepe c. oee ceo, oeo, xoe ocooe pec. oec coa eo pya ec. caaa p ca pa Pocc coacecx e: ca coaa yoecoo, coaa apoecoo coaa ayoro apcccoo. epaec oe e pyccoro oe, ocaeeoc yoec coacec e. O caa: e axo ero oco coe paoc e, y ope ce a cyee eoeecy. Ty paeo oe xapaepoe pycco peooo ee acpoee o aey, a e o ey. epaec ycpee aey, cac . O ep cace eoeeca. Ha yo epaecoro pac o, o o ycpo coe e pec aacep o yp. Ho pece oo o .. o a coec. Ta pece 70-x oax e py coaceco ere, oopa oe apo caooepeoro cye ey. epaec ae yepa a opoce, o aacep oe oo peoceco caoepao Pocc. Mee xapaepoe yoeco ca coaa.

pya epaee paee, peoooe apaee pecaeo o H.Cee, oop o-oy ocy ocoecoy ooo coa opaa Capoa ecax. Cee aeco, oyco ae o apcy. B pye epaee pa yace ocoec, xo o aoee ceo oe oooc ocyece coao yo y-p. Mpe copa pya epaee oc ae ea, a ce eao oaoc o pe Pocc. Bce e pya apecoa 21 eoe poope cepo a c aeo aopro. B x ce ocoec, oopoy poc epe y poopeoo paccpey.

eo epaee e or e ype peoox acpoe pycco . Pycc coa ae e ye c ec. oc opa Heaea Taea. Oe epeco oe, o epe apcc pe . Pycc apc, a ee, o opy ooy 80-x roo. Ho oee pycce apcc ye oe 40-x oo ape. Ta ceo oe H..Caoo oe 40-x roo ape ep pycc apcco oe ooe o epx yeo Mapca[4]. Mapc, oop ooe e Pocc pyccx, c yee e apa, o y eo noc oceoae cpe pyccx cex oeo. eo o eoopoe eoepe co pa apcca. apcy oo poc epe oe epoc c ay epa c opy a I epaoa, xo, o-oy, ay aao o a apcocy oe cc poeapaa[5]. Bo co cyae oe xapaepa ae e pycca cocooc eaeoy yee coa e. K coay ec XIX e y pyccx a, epeooa . ce oooo y ac yeee . Orpo epec cop pyccoo caocoa, pycco aoao e pycco coao e pecae cya epea.

 


3.

epe aao, cop co caoa caoax 40-x . Xo o oe poe epe reeaco, o copo epee eepaxy. Oco e aeo o e e eeoe, a e payco coaceco epayp. Coacecoe pocoepae epea paoaoc o e paycx coaco. Bo ora ee coa, .e. apc, ey y. epe ex pyccx aao, oope cpaco ea o aae eapoa eo. epe rppoa, o epx pyccx pao. O oa a aa aocepy peo 48-o oa; o caaa yec o peoe oa a ee oe ae. Ho epey cyeo o epe rye paoapoa ocecx peo 48 ., aae aax x ooe. eee epea aao o ec pycc ec pycc o paoapoae epea aae. oce eo oe pycce epe aaooe . epe opae pae aaa. O ye o eac, eo-ypya yx coacax. O o epx ye oooc coaceco ypyaoc. Opa pap aec opao ea-aoa. Oee ypyao aaa paoo-pycc . o paa pyx epax cao. Peaoep K.eoe ye a e occaa po eaca aaa, a peooep epe.

epe, oe o pyx pecaee eoo aep, e coea oeco eop popecca, aoopo, o aae ecccecy oco cop, e ep payoc aoc copecoo poecca, yeo ocyece epxooro aa. o opao epeco y . Bepxoo eoc o pae eoeecy oc, oopa paaea copec popecco. O ae ocoae coeopaoy pyccoy yacecoy coay, oop 70-e o ye pecae H. Mxaoc. ya oacec pooooe yay ypyaoy. epe e c, oope aao Epoe or pooco apcy e. aao-epoec pao ca ea o eaca cac e oe. pa epe, e o cao cep oooc ec epyc a poy, yxoo opaaec a poy. Ka yace caoepa pe Hoa I, peocoe pao, eeeco, o eo Pocc, pycco apoe cpa oe oo, ye, e eac, e ypyao . epe oe pycco ye, cepo yo yye, pecco oe. B pycco pecco pe cpa oooc apoecoo coea pa oc pa ooc, coaoc. epe yac-ce, ey y peoe . Bepa pycc apo, pay aey ye, ec eo oce op cace. epe eaec o ocooooo pyccoo apoeca, coeopaoo pyccoro . B e epea pyccoe aaeco coc c eoop ep caoca. B aaeco aepe pooe paco a apoo-coac epao. epe apo-coac ep ocoe y Pocc, ee pae ocyec ye pa aaa coay pay, ep oooc Pocc ea yaco aaa. aa epa ya, o Pocc oa e e ye, o aaa Epoa. Hapo opae oocc oe, o ya, o oa oe Pocc o aaoy aaoy y pa, o paa pa coaoo a oec. xapaepo pycc o. epe, ay, ae ae oee peooep, a Heae Tae, ao-o cce e pyco ee, e aa, pocee epa. Bocy ae pyccx peoox, coacecx aapxecx apae epyo aay pycco peooc, pycco . Oe ao oe, o epae e cea ca Pocc y ac oa e o epax eoo, oope oya opa aope . ee epax peop 60-x oo e, oeo, aee, o x epa ceo paec eo, aco o, o e peca coo ao eoo, oopo cea yaac pycca ee.

 

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2001,



[1] C. M. epeoa M

[2] Ocoeo aapc y K.Acaoa

[3] C. .Cay: Pycca payp . 1922.

[4] C. y y .

[5] C. epecy Cornu: Karl Marx, L'homme et l'æuvre 1834.