[..] | [] | [ ""]

 

..

 

 

 

ABA III.
PCCKOE HAPOHECTBO AHAPXM

1.

Hapoeco ec co e xapaepo pyccoe ee, a , a aapx. ac o apoeco eoe paoe, caocoe aaecoe, peooe aececoe. Cao epe, ocoec ay, .Toco peooep 70-x oo oaoo apo, xo o paoy. Hapoeco ec pee ceo epa pycc apo, o apoo e yo oa pyc poco apo, a opao pecco. Hapo e ec a. Pycce apo cex oeo ep, o apoe xpac aa co , cpa o ococyx yypx acco. B ocoe apoeca eao yco oopaoc ee o apoa. ee-apo e ycoa ce opaeco ac apoa, apo axoc e x. ee e y apoo , oa oopaa o apoo ycye co y epe apoo. yco epe apoo pao opoy po cxoo apoeca. ee cea oy epe apoo oa oa ya co o. Bc yypa, oyea eee, oaa a ce apoa, a ce apooo pya o aaae ey oeceoc a poex o yype. Peooe apoeco (cao, ocoec, Toco) ep, o apoe cpa peoa paa, apoeco e 6epeooe aco apeooe (epe, ay, apo-coac 70-x oo) epo, o e cpa coaa paa. Ho ce pycce apo coaa epay coe Haco eoe, eoe e oae yo , pexo cyaa cox pae, ec pyoo eoe, eoe apoa. Kyypa caa o cee e ec opaae , oa yea co opoo eo opaoe apoa. Hapoeco e peo ao paeo yype o co cyae occaao po yypooo. Hapoeco caocoo, peooo a eo ay y yypx, cx acco ope o peox epoa apoa o apooo a. opao oee aee eo apoeco coacecoo a, oopoe eo y yypx acco o, o c x x yypa ocoaa a cyaa apooo pya. eeya, yyp co Pocc cao coaa coe ococo coe yypoe pae. Ha epax coeo opecoo y pycc e ocpo ycoa coe ooeco, opaoc o o, co y pocac , xoe py ee apoy. Tao Toco, coec. Kaa paa o ooe ey Toc He! Hapoecoe pocoepae oc eypec xapaep, oo ac o e. Hapo e o ac e, oop aeae apo-eepc .. Hapo-ee apo oopa o e xoe e epyc. Hapoeca eoo ooa a pecco, ceco-xoceo cpae. Hapoecoe pocoepae ec pocoepae oececoe, a e yacecoe. Hapo ec oe, oopoy ee xoe poc, o eo.

Pyccoe apoeco ec opoee pacoa epoco ox. Oo ec poy coa ee co eopaaoc coe , eeoc coe , poy eopaecoo xapaepa ceo cpo pycco . H o apo aaa e epe a co oo oa, a apo pycc cox pepoax cox. Coac coeopa aeoc opa Kac op coaa co coa, a e pex, pex coeo coaoo ooe e ac. Cooo-apo 70-x oo H.Mxaoc eae pae ey paoo coec paoo ec. Paoa coec pocxo pepoax accax, opce, paoa e ec, peoae a eoeecono ococa pocxo apoe, x, yeex accax. Hapo-ope ac o peyecy oa coec, apo-pao oa ec. Pyccoy apoecy cea o coceo opaee ypyaoc o pa aaa . Hapo ep ocoe y pa Pocc, oooc oa aa aa, peaaee pyccoo apoa pape coa opoc ye copee, e a aae. B o cxoc peoep-apo c caoa. o e o epuea. Oo ax oop apoecoo coaa o a, o pyccoy apoy cea y pce o o . Aco xapaep aco coceoc cea pac. pycoo coa ao e ooee py coceoc, a ooee oy eoey. o, oeo, o oee xpcacoe coae. Bao ee oe, o pycca ee oaac o aax intellectuels e o yxoo, o o coey coaoy . aaa ee coao cce ypyaa, oa ooeo pae pepoa, ocao acca. o opeeec yco ceo opaoa a aae. Pycca ee ooeo a poeapco, e ypyao coa cce coa. oce 60-x oo, ae oa eeu ocaaac opco, oe ac paopec, poeapoae . ee e pao e e ax cpec apaa poo ypoa , yac pooo. epcecoe opaoae Pocc o opao eee pee oax acco, e a aae. oac coao occ cea ca pycco ee coay, e ypya xapaep ee eoo. Ho coa ee XIX ea oc eae xapaep. He a aae e cyecoaa ao coeopao ope poea ee apo, oop oeo ce pyccoe ee opo oo XIX ea, o a aae cyoc e o ee, apoa pycco cce coa. Bce apo eapoa ya pecco , pecca oa pecaac opa poyo pycco cop, ea o , o pae H.Mxaocoo, co o o cye pa. Ho e ceye paa co ooo ae apoeco ope o oe, oa a opaee pyccx yco . ee aee ee opa yxo apoeca. Pycc oy ee opy pooooy apecy, o eo o ce ee pyccoo peooo apoeca.

Haao 60-x oo o oxo epax peop, ocooe pec, cyeo peop, ypee . o ecoo e oe apo, ooceo ppeoc eo ee c ac eae yacoa ocyece peop, yx cepxy. epe ae epec y xaee ca o pecco peope Aecapa II oo oepa o ee paeco. Mea ee o ocooe pec ocyecec. Ho ecee acpoe pooac eoo. Peaooe acpoee cepxy peooe acpoe cy ca apoca aocepa eaac ce oee oee . Oe copo p ope opce, o oopoy yapo ocooee pec, oapyc peaoe acpoe, peee peopa. o ooe ee oea a pepecca ee. Ae cpaxa ca peoaa pae coe, a o cea peoaa y pycco ac cece pa pycco eopaecoo xapaepa pyccoo oyapca. Haaoc peoooe ee, oopoe paoc eppopcecx aax po Aecapa II. Peaoe acpoe oayx acco ac x epeca . acpoe peaoac pepecx, oope co oep a peooe acpoe a. oyac opo py. Peooe a e cpo e o, a opoa acca apoa ce e epa ceoc caoepao oapx. ee eocaoo oaa, o pycca oapx e oa epac o ace, o oa opaac a peoe epoa . Kpece ocooe c . Mee ex, oope peoa ocooe pec e e a poeapa x, aaoc oee. Ho pece, ecop a o, o ae oo ac e, ocac eypoe . poe cecoxoceo yyp , p peca e xaao e . Coco cpo cac, eoeeoe ococo pecca ocaoc ye. B oo ooe Pocc pooaa cpao opco oa e oe peooe o cao peo 1917 oa, oaac aa aee opo e. Hpa . Hecop a opooe aee peop, ce eoo. oce ocooe pe peoooe apoeco, apap coa oy oe o. B Pocc aaoc pae aaceco ycp, xo cao cee, opocaa ypya. epeece ya pepac ypya. Bopoc o o, oe Pocc oa aacecy ca, ca oee .

pax, acacecx peoox ee oa 60-x oo o epec pecae oea, ya ypa Heaea, xapaepo pycca ypa. O ocoaee peoooo oeca Toop apoa . Heae coca Kaexc peooepa, oye eoao epec, ece coe poe. B o oyee a cee peeoe paee p eoo peooo ac. o paa, oop oe pyoocoa aco peooep, a acaee eo yxoo . Heaec Kaexc peooepa o yoc aoa opoey paocay acey, ceay c eyo, o o-o poe caaa Cpa ece c e a oo peoooo coaa, peea opa peoooo aceecoo pooepe, coepeo peooo opeeoc o pa. Heae , oeo, coepeo cpe, epy aa, oe o yepca. eo xoo pacoa. O oo ce pyoo, o coace o oe ca ope. Heae aya cex. Peooep coac cex oeo o eo opec a, o o opoepye o pe coaa. ae ay oep Heaea. Heae eaecoe eo ocyo ooo aca eco . eo o yce eaea cyea aoa, aoopeoo pooaopce, opao oopaee ocoecoo opaeo yce aoa. ep Bepxoec, oeo, ao oxo a Heaea poo eaee ac, o cxooec ocoec pacp oo . B Kaexce Heaea ec o-o cecoe. ac ocoeo epeco, o Heae o oo peocxae oecco opaa ap, pae epaoao ecoeco, oopo ce e . Heae xoe op c Pocc a ae peoo ea c eeo co, oopx ce, ce ooeo ocyece peooo e. Heae pepae apoe acc xoe x cepxy ec peo, o opae epa. Ka pcye Heae peooepa? Peooep opee eoe. O e ee x epeco, e, yc, paoce, oceoc, ae e. Bce e axaeo o ce epeco, oo c, oo cpac: peoe[1].

Peooep opa c paac opo oa po, c opa oo pa. O e o pe, o eo . O e oe ay oo pa. O ae oy ayy papyee. peooepa ce opao, o cy . Coa, oope oo oop e. Peooep yoae cex, o eae ey ocy e. To e peooep, o ee opo e-y o pe. Peoo oe poa ae ay o, cy e cox . Hyo ye cpaa ace, o a occae acc. Hyo coec c paoa, oope acoe peouoep. Hyo cocpeoo o p oo ce cepapyeo eoeo. cxoo peooepa o Heaey peye opee o pa o , ceo paoococooc, ceo cocpeooeoc a eo a opey, coac a cpaae y, epeece oopo yo ooc. cxoo a acea ooy, o p o e ep oo oe aoa ey , a xpcace. Moe e xpcace opoee opee peyc o peooepa, xo pyo e. Beoe oe o xpcaca o, o xpcac aexc e peye ocyece ce e e oycae ooa ce cpeca, ca pecy.

o-o Heaecoo aceecoo peoooo a epeo epcoy, coae pyooe . epc , oeo, epy aa, oyca ce cpeca o ocyece apca coaa. O p cpae cpaa, o ec po, o coace ca a ep cpaa. O 15 e a aope. Bepy ao oc oooc, ooc ce, o epe co peoy ep. o pooo co o peooepa. Koyc ce-a c eaec aexc, o ooe o oo aexca oo pycc oy, ocoeo epoaa epo. Ceac oyc peca ocyapco, a cpoeco, a e papyee ooy oe ec, epeca peooepa o coey y. Ho x e eo, a ec a. Ho x p ec a a aep ce ooeo ooe aep paeoy. Ca Heae poce 10 e aopo pe, Aeceeco Paee yacax ycox. Ta o pacpoaapoa pepa cox aeo c cpay p epe ee ccc c ape apoo o, oopo aa coe. o eoe ceo c. Ho opeco aoo eoea e oo peea eo opoo.

 

2.

Aapx co e xapaepoe opoee pyccoo yxa, a , a apoeco. o o oco yeo cpyype pyccoo . Pycc apo apo ocyapce, o oopo oace aepao coa eoo pooo ocyapca, o e coe yy, oe, aapx. Pycca oceca cx aapxa. Cea Pa yae xapaepo pycce yp a o x coxpaac apoe.


ee aapxec oe ce pycco c XIX ea. Bc pycca ee e a ocyapca e caa eo co. ocyapco o o, ye, e o ae, yo coy cy. Ec pycc cocea a c o ce oaa ac, o e cocea a c, o ca ac ec o pex. M e, o oocoae caoa caoepao oapx aao cee c aapxec ee. Koca Acao aco aapxco, y eo ec eca, aoae ay. C aapxec ee ec y ocoecoo. Pycce apo e oa ae ocyapca e ya o , a oae ac ocyapce. B o ypeae x pocac e cop oyceco ap[2]. eaoe yyee cea pecaoc eocyapce. ocyapco cc ocoe .

opaeee ceo, o eoo aapxa ec o peyecy coae ceo co pyccoo apca, o pycc aapx pope oeepoecoe aee. ape ay, Kpoo, pa Toco coae pyccoo pooo . epao ec ypa aya, ay aacecoe opoee pyccoo apca. o opooe , cea ocaeeoe ca pa peoo e, pycc aaep, ecoco eoecoy e ce, o-o poe Ce Paa pyccoo apca. O ee eoeo 40- oo, pyo ecoo, epea, cao, o pe eaco . Ho aee, , po epoecoe aee, o pope 60-x ocoeo 70-x oax. B aece paa o yacoa o cex epoecx peox. O opec c Mpco -a I-o epaoaa, oop xoe ec aapxece p, eepaa eepa. Caaa ay c Mapco xpox x ooex ae aa e a Mapca ye o eccaco pa poeapaa[3]. Ho oo o eaec cepe pao Mapca. Mapc eo ocyapce . ay e ee, peoa ace apo aa a eo aaec Kyo-epaca ep coaa . aya oe c caoc ee. Eo peoo ecca ec ecca pycco-cac. O ep, o poo oap ye ae pycc apoo caco. o pycco peooo eccae o ec peeceo oyco. ayy paea coa: cpac paapye ec opeca cpac. Aapx aya ec yapco. O xoe o poo y, ae poo oap, xoe papy cap p, o ep, o a paaax capoo pa, a eee oe ca coo o . ay xoe yoa apoe, poeapce acc ceo pa. O xoe opaac ep, a ep, o yoaac ep, cpoc ce oo cop a, coac yy, oy . O xoe paya ep. ay apo o ce, o ep pay cpy pyoo apoe, eo acce ocoeo pycco apoe, oop o ca apoo-yape o peyecy. Bce o eo ocyapce, coao ococy acca c opye yee. Mapc eeyae, o paa pooe aee eop, oco, aye, o e ep oy, ocoay a ox, o paa opooe aee pa coa opaa. ay ceo ooae, paee c eeya . O opaeo oocc aya ye. oee ceo ey eaca ac yex. Hay coa eo ec ac yex. He oyc ypae ayo. Hoy e ceye aa ac. O eapye paoy, paocy, yaecy cx pycco apoe. B ep oe peo oe oe ocooac o cxe, ope ce apccc eop. apo, o yex eooo peoooo coacecoo e 70-x oo, xoe oya apo a peo o oo oye. ay xoe yoa apo, e oya . O ep pay cy eopaoao cx. aya ce apapca c Bocoa oce y aaa, y ypyao pa. K oy coa py pycce oyc, ope coey aaoy . eoe aya ca eoeo epe y. Ec p pa eoeecoo pa: 1) eoe o, 2) c, 3) y. y ay poooaae opaa. Mapc eo oe, a o epe e o Poecepa oe. ay oyco, o oy eo aocyapce, aapxec. O ep co pooex accoa. ay yee, o cae ca o cee e coa ocyapca a o a ocoaa eo epa cc . ocyapceoc aya ec pee ceo eeoe e. ay pecaae, o, ec, ao-y cpae ocyecc apc, o o y cpaa pa. Heoope pecaa aya ya ceac .

Ho ae aya ee oee ocy, py acec, e ae Mapca. o opeeoc eo cpac, acacec pycc eepaeo. Mapc eoe c eo opa po pe a pee ceo opoco ee coa. ay eoe ooa ae eo poo eaee e opa e oa, a oo peo, a op c oo, ooopca. B eo aee ec apooce o. Oo ax eo poee aaec o ocyapco. ocyapco o aya coo cex o poo cop, opaoee eee eoea apoa. Ho epa oa a ao oopo ocyapca. Bca ac o oa. aya o a, o ca ac o aoa. o eo ec ao, co ac eoea a eoeo, opaoee ace. Ec o ec, o eoe pa. e oa opeee o eoeecoo paya, o cpaeoc . o cee. Bce pe - eco. eo aepa eace a pae. B pe oeceoe oocc a eo, a pyoe ooe ocaec a ee. o c eepaxa, oo oopea Mapco. ay oe o ecoo oe pyo oop o Xpce. Xpca yo o oca py, a e . eoe, oape eccepo yo cooo, ec cyeco aoeceoe[4]. o eccep yx e yaec oece, Oeco opoae yya, oeco co opa. B poooooc Macy pepy, aapx aya peeo ayacec, oecec, oycec. ay opae oc, ee caocoey eoc aoo. B o o oaec o pyoa. O pooeye aapxo-oy. Ho oe o aapxo-oya Kpooa, oop opae e eooecoo oa, y aya o opae oe e papye ya po ceo, pee ceo po oa. ay cae ep c aaa. O ocae: a coaa peo ye oaa co ap oo oe pe ce aa ce ep[5]. Bocy oy aya e ae ocyeo aea pyccx oyco, oope ce-a e ap cex epe a oopx ycyec eeyacecoe apca, Ho ocye aee ay ec pee-ceo oya. Aapxo yapco aya oy ocooac ea . Ho coa, cpoece, opaa oyc paao oac o aya, oop oa e o opaoa ac e xoe . ay, a Heae, opaeo oocc aye . o oe oe pyccy .

o cpae c cpeo Heaea aya pye ee pycco peooo-coaceco, apoeco c ce . B oco o o, e .Koa, M, Cecepa ae eoaaca, a e ocy aepa. peooeac py yap opa, a ooe paoc a. B coao ye oe pac pyoy oe-o acy y Mapca, oopoo ye aa a. Bace y ee 70-x oo .apo H.Mxaoc, a a aaeo cyeo cooo, . E. o pe, oopa pae eoxo cooo poo pacey oey coax . apo Mxaoc o coey aa eoeecy oc, e oa ee, poe, o yya, coa x, a y epea, oc yacec xapaep. Coaceca opaa oeca ya o oo aoo yya. Mxaoc oe opy a yaoc cpo eop oa op ey oco oeco, ocpeo o opaecoy y. apo Mxaoc e eoo, oae oco paao . Caoc x ococo o, x oepxoc o ea ococ oocoa p oc, oop ooeo copoo x coaceco eop. x oc ce e ocaaac coae oeca, oeceo cpe eoo, oya o o a c op c oeco, oopoe xoe pepa oc co opa . apo pope ecoc co copec ca, oope ca opa aexco apoeco ee. apo pa o oa, yypx acco epe apoo eoxooc ya co o apoy. O ca paoo pycc opoc o ee popecca yyp. Ho apoeco apoa Mxaocoo paeao oy y, op ca ce oae epec apoa, o e e apoa. O ya, o epe, poceee e axoc y ee, a e y apoa. ee oa aa apoy a, pocea eo coae, cy epeca apoa ey eo ocooe, o coxpa eacoc ex, ex. Mxaoc pa o ceye pae: ec peoo apo opc o oay oea pa c ecoo yo o oey, o opoc c o ocee a po.

Ty o a pe cya, oopy ye ocaea paaa, cpeac peo ee. Mxaoc aeee, oeo, oe pa peeceo oya, opao eee ecoo, epecoo aya o oxo a . o pya ooca pycco coaceco c. Pa e c ecoo axoe peoo apo eo ooy, o o poaec eoop e oo caoo ecoo. B o apaoc poo . B 70-e o Pocc o coe apoecoe ee, oopoe paoc xoee apo. o ee caaa e oco peooo-oecoo xapaepa. ee-apo xoe c c apoo, xoe pocea apo, ocy peca x acyx yax pecax. O xoe e o apoa c caa a ooa opaa 3e Bo. Heycex oo xoe apo, oopo o poeo coo caooepe epococooc, co ep ae, coo aopoca, ca , oeo, c e, o aoyc a paecee pepecc peceoa, o e oo c . paa apoecoo e a pee ceo o, o apo e p ee apo ca oaa eeo-apoo, epeo ecopco eax ocy apoy, py ace. Hapoy, o oop oaoc a opao pecco, o yo pocoepae ee, apo ce ee caac peo, paoca epeooc ee eo oaaa. Hapo ye apcy ae apoeco xoe apo. Bce o oy ocao epe coae apoeco ee oecy poey peo paoe ox eoo op.

 

3.

aeaee eopeo peo 70-e o .H.Tae[6]. o oee e o-o oe pa peeceo ea. Tae aa a pae peoo opa Haa, oop paee caoo paeo ee. Tae, ey po, ep 70-e o aoop y ac o Mapce. B 1875 , o e opoe co ecy, oopo op o ocox yx Pocc o ocoo xapaepe pye pycco peou, oopo e poco pe po apca. p o e caa, o Tae poooaae epeece a pyccy oy apca p apoeca. Tae e pao apoo, o cyoc e ep apo. O ep poooo oy pyccoy pee apca, oopoe cae y Pocc pae aaa, ypyay peo, ocy p., oy pe oe y pyccoy oey. Ty aeaec ye paoac ey e exao. Tae e xoe oyc pepae pyccoo ocyapca ocyooe ypyaoe. Ocyce pao ypya Tae ca ea peyeco Pocc, oea oooc coao peo. Pycc apo coacec o cy. Tae e eopao. O yepa ac eca a oco. Taea aa oe, o e coce epo. oco ec opa eopa. Tae e pee ceo coac coa eo e eopaecoo a, e o oxo a ea oyco. Tae po apoecx e 3e Bo ep epee, oope opa co oecy opy. Eo ooee ee oe aoae ooee ea a aae ooca, ope ca epe pao acco co ooece aa, oecy e opy aeo cee peoca epa . B cop peoox e Pocc Tae ec peeceo Hapoo Bo, oopa oe o apoecoo e 70-x oo ocaa cee oecy aay cepe caoepao oapx ye eppopa. Hapoa Bo ec oea Taea a apo a ay. Tae, a e, eopeo peo. Ocoa e eo ec axa ac, axa ac peoo . oo yo eopaoa ecyy ac ye eppopa. Hapo o e Taea cea oo peo, ooy o o aepa, oop oyec peoooe eco. Peo ea, a e oo. Hao o Tae e pae. Peo e oa peecoa poaaa oyee acc. Ho T peeo po aapxa aya. O cae acypo papyee ocyapca. O oop o aee ocepax ype peoo o ae, a o ye oop . Aapxec oc aya coepeo y Taey. ay po co opaa. Tae e copoo opaa peoooo eca, oopoe oo aoea ac. O eox pyccx peooepo pooo, o ece, oop ya o ac, o ee aoea ee opaa. O xoe, o peooa coaceca ap caa . o o oe oxo a ea. Peoooe coacecoe paeco o peca cee ooo . Papyee ceo pooo p opece Taea o ee oee ecoa, e p ee. Ho pe oo ee e acyo e Taea e e ocoeo oypoc pycco peooo cpee. Bo ac, pooeaea Tae, a oe pooooa acpoe pyccx coaco-apoo.

Oe peeo peo ye 80-e o oepoa po Taea ocoae pyccoo apca coa-eopa .B.exao. o o ocox oo eo Ha paoac. oea exaoa c Tae pecae oo epec, ooy o oa y coce a, a yo exao oepye c e oea, o pe a x ee e cyecoao. exao occae, a opao, po e axaa ac peooo coaceco ape. O cae ao axa ac eau ecace, pea pye peae. exao ae po aya yapca. O aa, paoac, pocee . Ey y pycce ppaoae o. O aae ayy oco po peoooo ocypaa aya Taea. exao, a oo ce apcc-ee, e xe pa ocoex ye Pocc oooc opao peo Pocc. o, oeo, oc. Tae oee pa. Tae, ooo ey, cpo eop coaceco peo . Pyca peo pyea ceoa e o aa opaa. C caa a ocoea poea cop pycco coaceco c oe Pocc oa aacecoe pae, ococo ypya, oe peo coaceco, oo pe Pcc eop apca, e cc c ocoeoc pyccoo y. Tae pa pe eca. paoa eo e a paoo apoeca po apca, a copeco paoo -oeo po eeo, ea po exaoa. B Pocc e oyceca peo oaaac ye, a epaa, ypyaa peo oaaac yoe. Mapc e oe pyccx, o epe e o aya, e epea. B eo ooe Pocc ycoac oa aco epacec aepa. Ho o paa opooe aee Pocc oooc Pocc peo. O ae ya pycc ce a pycc copa o peo coae. O aca ecoe co H.Mxaocoy). Ka ye oop, o oe e . Ho Mapc ec oop o ypyao xapaepe pye pycco peo, a apoooe, oope cocpeooc ceo a cepe caoepao oapx, o ooe opao eee peecea ea, e Tae. Mapc ec e oa coeopa pyccoo y eea, coo capac o ayea . Ho oeo Tae, a Heae ae oac ay, o eue cee, a a o opa ac . B 70-x oax ye aeac e cop, oope e 90-e o pycce apcc apo, a aae XX ea apcc-oe apcc-ee.

co Aecapa II o ocaoe ap Hapoo o o oo cpo pyccx peoox e o ooe apca. o a pae eoopca pcco ac pycco ee. Bo ae eppopceco opaa Hapoo o, oooe oyee 1 apa 1881 ., ca epoeca oc A.eoa. eo ca pocxo apoa, pec, o caaa apoo opa aee oeco op. ecxooc e ee apo pea eoa coa eeoc op c caepae, a epo aae. eo coce e aao yepo ooo Heaey. O copee o eoea, peaaeoo ca oo apo . O ae eee ceo aepaco pyccx peooepo aoee o xpcacy. Ha cye o ey 1 apa, a opoc paoca o, o oe: Kpee paoca, o paocae opa, xo cyoc ye cyca Xpca pa. a cyoc ye cpe ox pacex oye aae oeoe eco. ep cy cpaeoc oo epoye opeceo pa, o epa e e epa ec o c c xpca oe opoc a pay, a pao yeex cax, ec yo, o a x ocpaa: aoa o epa[7]. epe a o oeoa pec. o oe cyae oycecoo opaa eoa .Bo-pocoo. O oce xpcace ca eoa e, o apoo 70-x oo, a e ececo. ya, o y oy po pao o, o eo eoeo . ao eoe acx oo, pae, oe co oa a opaa yca. o cpaa pae pyco . o coey pocoepa eo e peeceo pyccoo oya, o o pea opaa, o ec . cop pyccx peooepo ec appoo. appooo oyc ocooac, a pace aao. Pycca copeca ac paceo ce yaa, coaa yeo.

 

[..] | [] | [ ""]
2001,

 



[1] . opae , oopo : Kae pe Heea e: Michael Bakunins sozialpotiche Bief-wecchael mit Alexande Hezen und Ogajow. 1895.

[2] C. E, Jaoslawskij: Aus der Geschichte der kommunistischen Partei der Sowjetunion, I Teil

[3] C, poay y Conu.

[4] C. M.a: Kyo-paca co peo, 1922 .

[5] C. y e y.

[6] C. . : Ha p copo-peooa Xpcoa . 1, 1923 .

[7] C.: A.Bopoc: eo, 1939 .