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ABA IV
PCCKA TEPATPA XIX BEKA EE POPOECTBA

1.

Teep epexo o p, y yey aocepy, aocepy eo pycc epayp XIX ea. a epaypa ec ea a pyccoo yxa oa popea pooe aee. Ho ae e o coax pyccoo oya aa oa ee epa, cocaa ee aeaey . Pycca epaypa caa poeeca pe, oa oa peyc pecaa, e cocea peoa o aaec aacpo. oe pycce cae XIX ea ycoa, o Pocc ocaea epe eo e ey. Pycca epaypa XIX ea ceecye o coepaec ypee po, o aaec peo. Bec pycc XIX e, ea o opecoy oey e pycco cp, eo apocae peo. Paco, paoee oo ea, oe pyccoe opeco o eaeo . Pycca epaypa o ea e a peeccaco o coey yxy. ye poec peecaca. To ooo e pycco o. o pycc peeccac coepac oe yo pyy pycco yypoo opca. O cpo copac epaypa oa py y. Haa c oo pycca epayp caoc yeo, oa e pa y ocyece pa. Pycca epaypa poac e o paocoo opecoo a, a o y cpaaeco cy eoea apoa, o ca ceeoeecoo cace. Ho o a, o ocoe o pycco epayp . Pycco epaype oce cocpaeoc eoeoc, ope opa ec p.

eo y pyccx caee c oceo ocpo caac poea o opaa eoeecoo opeca yyp oepac coe oaaoc yyp, a o o eex pycco coao c. o o cao co cao y, paoa npaocae, y, oopo ocac oe c aceec ee cae cace, oae o, ce . cxooec oo, .Toco, ocoec o oo cxoc c ec, ay, epec, cape, apoa 70-x oo, xo o aaepac opeco x opaeo . aae o oa e coeac opaaoc a, o co pyccoe coee oo oo e y ex pyccx, oope e ee poe yype, a y ex, oope aco aoc a epax yyp. Pycce cae, aoee aee, e ep pooc a, pooc ex ycoe, a oopx ooc p, a aae ypya p x pee. O o yx peyc aaec aacpo. Tao peoo coao ooaoc e ae epoeca epaypa, cooecya a oee ycaoec pcaoao, oee oopeo, oee caoooo cooo, oee epepoao pacpeeeo o . Pycc e a oee cocea eoco, oaapoc, a c, a opece . Pycce ce, pycce op, oa y x a yxoa aeoc, cea ca e coo coepeo yyp, coepex poyo opeca, coo coepeo , coepeo pa . C ca pea pycco epayp XIX ea, oop aco e oa. Bea pycca epaypa co o y copoy epoecoo acca poaa. E coce pea, o coce e pea oo cce coa, o pea o peo cce, a a epax co peoo cce. o ec pea cce pacp pa y . p y oo pe oee poaece, y Tocoo oee accece. Pycce cae c eoao ocpoo epe pae opeca epe eeoc peopae cao , ocyece pa . oo Toco oo oepoa opeco coepex poee epayp o opeca coepeo . Pycce cae e aoa ycox opax a ooy pacac ae cep. O xo a pee cycca. Tao oo, Toco, . Too y ca poey coo opeca, eacoc opeca oa o ep, o oop o o, oeo, e apo, a opyaee eo opcoe, oe, popoe oeco.

oo ye ca poey o coao cc cycca, o pa cae coaoy cy. xoe oo, o yapoao ope pycc oy aae coa aao. Bee pycce cae oo coe pe, po opyaeo x oeca, o o coce e yaca o py, o ca o paoy ceapooo, oeoo, coopoo cycca. Oee epa cyecyeo oeca, cae pa, epaypa coa coay cc, oopa coaco pyccoy yxooy cay y ox a cce -.

Pycca o a oa peyc pye peo, a oa paa e. ya ca eo epaopco Pocc. eceo, oo oo pec ocoa oy, o ca ya ocyapceo o coey pocoepa eee pacoo, e pyx pyccx caee. eo y epa . O oxoc ee . Ho oce oyoa cex cxo ya cao co, a oo y eo peoox cxo. Oe oac epa opa ooa eo epaypo . o o ye o pao oee Paea. y paea ooe eapco, o eo py. Ho papo eapco a yo ye eo oyece pycco oapx. y oce, y eo a a a. eo a o e ce Pocc, o a cpaca o cooe. eo a coce ocoea o cooe, oa o e pycco . O ac ee coo.

M e, c oee yoa,
My ooc co,
Ka e o ooo
My caoo .

B ye a yo a oo oee coeoc o, o o y ac cea paeeo eoo ep eoo . O ca o cee:

oo yy e ee apoy,
o yca ope po poya,
o o eco e ocea cooy,
oc a pa.

B cxoope epe y ocae peec o pycco epe. Ho py coae epay, paco, y, c oop caa peec epeeco , cyecoae pepoaoo . Cxoopee oaec coa:


 


y , py, apo eyee
paco aee o a ap,
a oeeco coo poceeo
Boe , aoe, pepaca ap?

Ho aoee epeco peoox acpoe ya cxoopee Booc.

Xoy oce cooy py,
Ha poax opa opo.

B o cxoope ec ye coa o apx:

Caoace oe,
Te, o po eay,
To oe, cep ee
C ecoo paoc y.

y ycoa yapcy x pycco apoe pee oooc pyccoo ya eccceoo ecoaoo. aoee apoeco ye e a oo apo, o ycoa eopooc, paopaoc epay epaopco Pocc.

Ho aoee opcaee eaee poo cxoopee epoa peaae, oopoe y ye coce pec.

Hacae o Pocc ep o
Koa ape opoa yae,
aye ep pe o,
ox ye cep po;

Koa ee, oa ex e
Hepy e a ao;

Koa ya o cpax, epx e
Hae po cpe eax ce,
ao x a;

cae a ce e pa epa,
apeo opac o pe:
B o e c o eoe,
eo yae oe,
ae pye eo ya o.
ope e! To a, o co
Ey oa oaec ceo;
ye ce yaco, pao e,
Ka a eo c ose eo,

 


o poaecoe o ope cxoopee, acaoe 1830 oy, pe yac peo o a coee.

Tpe e pycc o Te e copee ocepaoe pocoepae, e . Ho o ce pe ycoa, o a p aec cpaa peo. B cpao opace co co ocepao-caoc pocoepae Te ocpo ycoa pe xaoecy, ppaoay, ey, oy cx. Hape a p opo apo opa, aooecx opax pecac ey epo o.

...eoe, a cpoa eo,

Co eep eoe o,

mio y pe o e ...

yc ao y co

Teep ey ce ceoe, oe,

yo, epaaao, oo.

yae acee poooe.

He oo ppoe, o cop ec a xaoeca, ya cx. Te npeycye copece aacpo, opeco c xaoecx, oope opoy ococ. Te ocepaop, op e ep pooc ocepax aa ycoe. O cpo peaoy yo cace pa o xaoeco peo. O oopaa, o xpcaco oo ooac, a ocepao . Eo co oece cxoope ca, aeae eo ocece cxoope.

aa caoco o A.Xoo e poeeco aypo. C ce, o oe ocpece o. Ho y eo ec e p peo oex cxoope, oopx o, , ecop a caocy eaa copecoo pooo, o yac e copec pexa . O ep, o Pocc paa oea py aco coo, apoa ap co coo. Pocc eoca pa, o .

A a e, y! a oo
pexo yacx aeo
B cyax epa pao epo
o paca eea;

eoo ec, eopo,
e epo oopo,
co epoc oa!

Xoo pae oa,


 

3a ce, a ce cpaa,

a c opa ao,

a ee oo e,

a e pex cox pee,

a ce e pooo pa,

pe oo aoc c,

Moec, aa pa,
o O poc, o O poc!

O oae pyccy ocyapceoc ceo yee aepao co, .. ca e coao. O pecoa opaee Pocc Kpcy aa, a cpaey apy. O e xoe e pa Pocc ocyapceo o, o peoa ocyece pa. o o co a .

oo yo, o Pocc oepa yxa a , oa oa po xap pyo e a eoea. Ooo e ooe capa. O e eaecy yy a, a e oo coaoe ee poee. Ceac e ye capo Pocc pee oo c ee ecpae coa opa, e caoepao oapx, e ocoo paa, e capx epaec. Ho oee yoo cce ooeca Pocc ocac Pocc coeco, coeca, oyceca Pocc oa poa xap, e cae eoeec opa. coeco, oyceco Pccc ec Xecao, Hope, o, e opy ep ya e peop ao a cex cpax. oee ceo poa oo yx , epae Pocc. oo epe peoy pay. O oae ec ocpaeoo a, o e e e opa, e e opaa eoea. O ca xa xpcco ca co o e epeca c py. a aa yp poec ecoo, oop ye e ey ya, popecc, cooo eaa. Ho epece c py oo o xpcaa oe eoo yo, cyoc acoao eo oo o cooa, a aa cyecyeo cpo o o peocoo paa. B epece c py o oo ypooo e cooecyeo ye peoo pa oo, oa a opaee poope ypooce pycco . oo aype c aceec ee, xapaep pyccx, o peo ocye coeo epaypoo opeca.

Haoee poeec xapaepo oaec o aaa XX ea. o o aaa, oa eo ox, c c eeo . Ho o e op. o-coc yoa, o Pooc e ey. o x o yacao, o paoao, a oooc oo ye . Co paee oopaoc o coao eceoc, yxoo o p. Ho ece c e pycce coc B.ao, A.e, A.o, cpaae o ooeca, xoe ceapooo cycca, ac peooe yao ce, ca coaoo aaa, yope coecy . Haoee poeec cx o Pocc A.oa, eaeo oa aaa :


cya poo ce
pye p aap,
y a Pyc aee
po x oap.

B pyo cxoope a Ha oe Kyoo o e:

Mea epc, ...

Ocao!
y, y cnyae y,

aa po!

Ho aoee paoc yco Pocc peyc o Pocc yeo cxoope .

Pocc, a Pocc,
Me cepe o,
To e ec epoe,
Ka ce epe !

Te ae e ye,
pec co epeo ...
Kaoy xoe apoe
Oa paoy pacy!

yca aae oae,
He poae, e ce ,
aoa aya
To pepace ep

Hy, o ? Oo aoo oe
Oo ceo pea ye,
A ce a e ec a oe,
a a yop o ...

 

Ty peyce, o Pocc oac paoy pacy apoe, oop oe ee aa oay, ece c e epa, o Pocc e poae.

A pyo coec o Ape e ocae oo cxoope: Paccec pocpace, paccec Pocc, Pocc o. o oo pepeoooo pee ca, aoaa, o ep Co, oe opoe, o Xpca e ep. y x e popoa, ea, o oe eo ooy o op e yyeo, ocp ypee peo, oopo pye e aea.

Pycce ca XIX XX ea ycoa ce a eo, o e ycoo oece, peo ycoec . Kaacpoecoe pooyee cao xapaep aoee aeaex opecx pyccx e. Kpea, ycoa, acceca yypa c ee epeopoa, epeae pax oace, c ee opa c ee yxo oeoc, o ecoeoc, oe eaop peyc pee. Taoo poa yypa coae po y apae ee oo, yx o eeooo pyeo. B Pocc paoaac cxaooeca yea cpyypa, opaea oy, opa pyeo, peycya aacpo, paoaac ococa ceca yceoc. aaa ya a co ypeea aya a. ac e ce oee oee opaoaac pepeooa aocepa. Poc XIX XX ea paao oaec o Mococo Pyc. Mococa Pyc ea co c yyp, oa a aoaa ecx opax. ya ee e poyac. Oa e poyac c, pe, e oaa ee pa. O pocoe aaa pycco ye poe aco epeopo epeopo coepeo o apae, e y aao . Be aaa a Pocc o coepeo apaocao, oo e po pycco ye aae op. Haoop o e pacpo pycco ye ye, ocece, aece, a oa eoece c. ya pacoaac oapyc a, eeo oepoco oxe. ecoeoc cpee aaoo aycocoo eoea, eoea o cop Poc, oapyoc coce o ocooy, o coey o ao cee eaoe paee opece ocoecoo. Coyc Pocc oa, yaceoaa o pooo, opca, yeeca, eaca, oopy oepaa ep, Pocc ee, yxoo peooa coao peooa, ycpeea ecoeoc, ya paa pyeo. o cooee pacoao aece c, peo pa. B o pe a a aae poceee yypa coaa ao-o opo, oe opa xo ooce, oeo, opo, Pocc pceee yypa epa op, yoa epeopo, cpa peooy ay. o opaoc epax pyccoo opeca, y cex pyccx caee.

2.

pocxoa Pocc ype peo opaac oee ceo a opece ocoecoo. o pyoy oa opaac y Tocoo. Xyoeco Tocoo e o poeec, o o ca peoe. epeco cpa x yx eax pyccx ee. Coooe ey xyoeceo cxe y coae y x . ocoec aec xyo, epoo ca aec pe[1]. Bce opyeo e pacaey, oey aocepy, ce ypo e, e eo ycaoeo, ooaeo . ocoec ocec xyo. O paae peo yxa, pacpae aey peo. B e oe ce poeec ee, o opae yyey ooe e . O po pyccy peo pacpae ee e. Ho coaee e ocoeoo, paee ee cae, poo aee ocepax, xo o ocepa oco, epeea c peoooc.

Toco xyo ycooo oopeoo a. Poa ocoecoo pae, poa Tocoo oc. Ka xyoy, Tcoy e coce poe, o e opae . a poe ococoo ca c e, o o ec ooe poeo eoea, o . B xyoece Tocoo poa eo ca coepe poo epaype eoeeca opyea ocecy, pyoopo oceco . ocoec cop, Toco ocoe. Ho a poe coce eo cop, a e oceco . B coa e eo Toco peooepo, oee epa poo , o aapxc c, o occae po poo cop po a c ecxa . e oe ooac aoy pa, o oe ooac aoy Xoa , oy. ooeo Toco pooooe oyy, o e pae ac, o pa coo ocyapca, opae exy paoay opaa , o ep oecey ocoy ppo , o pooeye o, a e ea. Ho opaeo o peece oya, o opae pooe, pa cop, capy yypy, epo ocyapco, opae coe ooecoe coaoe epaeco, o po pepoae, ococye oc, e yypy . B pycco apoece 70-x oo e ay po pa aec ope. Ho eao opece . Tocoo oae ococyx acco oco eaeo ape. Toco ec poy o c, o oax oec ocoaa a epae. O xe paao opa c . B o o peooep, xo opae peoooe ace.

ocoec oe peooep, ecop a ocepaoe oe ox cox e. O e oa peooy ee pee ceo ooy, o pee opae coo yxa, a pee peya eo ae peo, ocoao a . eoe o ocoecoy eeo ee opa coo yxa. o pacpaec eao aee ee o Beo ope y aa Kapaaoa. B o c opaoc oe ocoecoo po peooo . oe aa cooy yxa, oope y caoo ocoecoo coepeo peoo epa Beoo opa o co ep ocyapce. B ecax o ec popoo pycco peo, o oe pee, o aco a . ocoec peooep yxa. O xoe peo c oo Xpco. ocoec pa aececoo coaa, a coaa Beoo opa, a pea coo yxa o xea cac. Ho o eee ceo a capoo ypyaoo pa. O oe coac a oe paoca, coac co Xpco. O cpo eopaecy yo, oopa ec opae capoo pa, opae ocyapca ypyaoo xoca. B o oe . o oe ocoec ooc coec c peao eea, oope e o eo o. Ho oa, Toco ococ, occa po epa aoa, paa pycc yx aaoeca, oa pa ypyaoo pa eo op. Oa, xo o paoy, y coo xpcca po cae copecoo xpcaca. Toco ocoec oo oece, oopoe o peo, oopo aoc pae . ocoe pooea yxo oy, oeceoc cex a cex. Ta oa o pyccy e coopoc. Eo pycc Xpcoc e o pcocoe opa ypyao . Toco e a Xpca, o a yee Xpca. Ho o pooeoa opoee xpcacoo oya, opa coceoc, opa coe ooecoe epaeco. Mc ocoecoo Tocoo a pa cxaoo, a coe peoooe ee. Toco ocoec pooey ceeoeoc o pycca e. epaoa ec caee pycco e ceeoeoc, xpcaco . Pycc apo o ocoecoy ec apo oooce eo oy, o o oce ceeoeeco e, e ceeoeecoo paca. ocoec poope coe ooe aay, oop o eae. poopee o ae ey ceeco, ceeoeeco ee, ocee oopo o ca pycc apo, eo pe aoa aa. O ep, o ce pe c Bocoa. Ho ey e coce apyp aoa, oop cea y opao pycco . Haoa cea ee aoae a pycco oe. Toco ocoec aaa yepcao peo yxa. x yacya pycca oyceca peo co opae yxa, o o ee .

Oe epeca oaaea ypa Kocaa eoea e o peyx popoecax pycco epayp[2]. K.eoe xyo, yc co. O coepeo ya ce e pae ao oe apae. C oo o pe o peaoep, o peaoepco eo poaecoe. O xoe oao epa-aap popecc, ooy o o ee apcy eaca, e coo ye yyp. eo coa ec ypyaoc, cep eo pa, epoae oeae. ooo peooepy epy, peaoep oe ocpo ca poey eaca, xapaepy pyccy . Heac ypyaoy yxy opee ae eoea. O e o ec oo, o aoco pooeoa, ye cpaa, o e, oc ca pap ca a yppax oo oo, o payc ee pycc ypya eopao oeco coe oee aoyecoa yao oeo a paaax ceo oo peeo e. eoe eoe acoo peeccaca XVI ea. Ho o a oaxo, o p a ocp Oo yce, pyoo cape . eoey coce ocp ce. ceeca oea eo ocoa. B e o oa ocaac copeeea oceoc: o oax opae oycopoey py, ey, ce opae occopoey py, . O e xoe ocyece xpcaca , peaa coao pa, ooy o o pecaec ey cep paco, ypo. Xpcaco eoea ecccecoe ceo . eoe o oo peece He. Bo oyecy, apcopa, paecoe yco , ocp ce, aopa, cocpeooeoc a a ycox ee eaaca yyp ce o po eoea c . ae e ao epec peca popoeca eoea o pycco peo. O oo pe ep, o Pocc ee ooe pace opao, e ypyao . Ho oo o paoapoac apoe pycco . O a aeo e, o aae e ecey cc pyccoo apoa o, o po cox ep axpca. e 80 o o ycye, o Pocc aao e peo pecaae, ao ye a . Koycecy peo o pee oee oo eao, e ocoec. O pecaae, o peo ye paeco poao, o oa ye e epao, a oyceco, o e e yy pooae paa coo, ye epea epao-paaa . Peo e ye yao e aoc pee c acoa . Pycc oy yee apo Bocoa oe cpe ypya p aaa. cpeee ypyaoo pa coo e oopao eoea. Ho o xoe cac oca aopoo, apcopaeco yyp. oo eoe xaac a ocee cpeca, o peaae pyccoy ap ec oy cepxy. eoe, coaco pycco pa, ea aa ypya. peyc pecaa eoea copooac yco aye oa pa.

B Pocc oa XIX ea apoca aoaece acpoe po eccceco opace. a yco acye oa pa apca axpca oo ye yco acye oa eo copeco ox, papyee capoo pa. o yco oceoe; eaoe paocoe. Pyce cae, aoee epece ye, e xoe ppc c e, o Pocc oe aa aa ye, ypya, paoacec, epa, . Coeopay opy pa aoaece acpoe y .Cooea, caoo pyoo pyccoo ocoa. oco B.Cooea, a c opaa pycca oco, a xpcaco. O caaa cpo xpcacy eopaecy yo, oeoa cooy eopa, ep oooc xpcaco . B poooooc eoey, o xoe ocyec xpcacy pay ooe . O pecae pycco ceeoeoc, pa coo aoaoo . O xpcac yepcac, ae coee epe oo pe coc . B ep epo coe eeoc B.Cooe ocec cooa xpcaco, xoe coe eo c popecco yao, ep oooc pa ooeoeeca a ee. Ho B.Cooe epe p paoapoa, epe yap a yapo. O pye pa, cop e coce e e ye, oopo o e opeco xpcaco c. eo oae ocpoe yco a, oopoe pae o ao. o oe o ooaeo paoapoaec oooc ceeco cooo eopa, e ep oee y cop. O aae ya, o cop oaec, o oa e ee yyeo, o ce cepao. O e co oec xpce. B e popoecye o o copo e axpca. Mpoa coaa opaa eoeeca ye ye e eo xpcaca, e xpcaco eopae, a eo axpca. B.Cooe peycye po aooa oacoc, poy Pocc Epoe o eo pac. y B.Cooea, a y eoea, aoaece acpoe, yco acye oa oaae e acyee oa pa, a oa copeeo ox, peyce copecx aacpo. o aoacc yp cop. Bce ycy, o Pocc ocaea epe eo.

pyccx aoaecx acpoe opooe aee ee H.eopo, oop ee oe XIX ea, o aee ecoc pope a XX ee. H.eopoa xapaep aoaecx apoe eec. peoo ooc c o aoee opae yyey oae aoacc ao, a e acco. H.eopo ooe pe coepeo eece eoee, ecop a o, o eo eoao coo oea cae oe pycce .Toco, ocoec, B.. o xapaepy H.eopo pycc yao, opao. O coce e poeccoa caee ocoo. O paea e pycc , oope y cace o a paa, y apca oeo e co a cace. H.eopo ca, o poaa e, o x yo paaa . o oe eao pacpocpae eo e. Ho ceac oce peo, cex pyccx peox cee XIX ea H.eopo ece oyp coeco Pocc ec eoe eopocoe eee. o oo. H.eopo ca ce paoca xpcao, o y eo oe oo cxox ep c oyo, o peece copeeoo ayaa. Pycce aoaece acpoe oce, x peoo peao oe. Ho ecoeo peoaao accoe oae aoacca. Pycc eoe ycoa ce poa cec e acyaeo oa, pee eopaoe ococo axpca, o axoc coco oa, yyee ao e yac. To, o e popoecye aoacc, coepc a eoeo, a apoo, o eoe e ec a eee ocyece . Aoacc oaec, a oece ay, eoeeca cooa e pae ao p. H.eopoa peo eec oae aoacca. Aoaece popoeca o apce axpca, o oe pa, o cpao cye H.eopo oae ycoo, a ypoy. Heo aaoo y e. Ec oec oeo ea ocpee, peaoo ocyece xpcaco pa , ec paco coe yy opoc po cxx, ppaoax, cepoocx ppox c, o e ye apca axpca, oa pa cpaoo cya, o eoeeco eocpeceo epee ey . Bce ac o aoc e. H.eopo pooeye ecxay aoc eoea, oopa oa oe ppoy, opaoa ocecy , oe cep ocpec epx. o oee eo peoaae, a coe eoxooe yoe, pace ooe ey , pepaee po e, ocyecee poceo ey , o oo ocyecec ae p oo ay ex. H.eopo ep, o exa, ec e ee pac oeeoe eoeeco, oe coepa yeca, ae ocpea ypx. oco o oae . Coco yex aaeo, pecax coe, oeeoe o paeco ae, e oo . Paeee eopeecoo paecoo paya ec o. ooo Mapcy ecy, H.eopo yae, o oc oa e oaa o p, o e eo, oa oa coaa poe cace pa o a cpaa, pee ceo o cep, a coa coo a. ocaoa poe cep paao oae, oeo, . eopoa o apca oya. Mpoa axoc o ac ppaoax, cxx ppox c. C yo peypoa, o payy a, eoe oe oae.

H.eopo pae oy, o epeca opoc py c pyo coec ece op co cx ca ppo. B o ecoeoe cxoco c oyo, xo a pyo yxoo ocoe. H.eopo ea aa ee oee, e apcc, ca eo coae yx co, ax o yepx oax. O ae oec, pa yaa. Oae H.eopoa o oya eo xpcaca epa coae oa o ooe yep oa. Ho eo cae c oyo pa a, epa o ceoyeco ex, pooe oeoo, oeo ea, paa aay, poe, oaapoc ooe , cooc pey aa pooo acaa, opae eopeeco c, yope, oopaoo o paecoo ea, pae pya ocoo . H.epo ceopa oyc a peoo oe, c eea eopeeeoo coca. B eo ye ee peacece epeea c eea yoec. O pycc ce. copeex yeo eopoa ee xpcace ocae yce ee exece, pocee .

Pycca epaypa pycca c ceecy o o, o epaopco Pocc e o eo eoco yyp, o pap ey yyp coe apoo, o cap pe e e opao oop. Kyypx ocepax e c Pocc e o. Bce ea peooe pacoa papa o o ope oea. Bce o peo.


 

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2001,

 



[1] . y Mpocoepae ocoecoo, ep, 1923. YMCA-PRESS.

[2] C. . (ep ), , 1926