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ABA V
mapkcm pck

1.

K 80 oa apoec coa peoooe ee e oo ae paac o eo aee. e ooee ap apoo o, oopa caa cee pee ceo co oecy e cepe caoepao oapx ye eppopa, o pco apoeca. Peooa ee payepac pecce pea oepec a co coce epo. co Aecapa II apoooa e oo e peo opecy peooo ee, o ao noxy Aecapa III coe peaooe ee e paece oo, o oece. Peooe ee e ao cee ao peao coao a. B o pe a pae cpe pao oa pya cooee pya. Bo ae ee co .exao, .Acepo, B.acy, e. o o ooee pyccoo apca coa-eopaecoo . oce Mapca eca exao o ax pax eopeo apca. B poo exao yacoa apoecx peoox opaax 3e Bo ep epee. a o aao Epoe exao ca coce aa eoeo, oe paoacecoo caa, ooo yyp, xo e cooo a yyp, peooepo oee , e paec. O o oao apccco o c, o e o oao peo, a o cc oxy peo. Ho a ax exaoa ocaoc ecoo ooe pyccx apcco, o ce e oa pyccoo . epoaao apc a pycco oe pae opo pyccoo aaeca. epe ooe pyccx apcco pee ceo opoc co cap apae peooo ee, c apoeco aec ey eopae yap. Pycc apc a ocooe o ycpaoo pa Pocc, oopoo apoeco a pa xoeo ea. Kaaceca ycp oa pec opoa pa paoeo acca, oop ec acc . ooy apcc co a poeapa pecca, opo apo xoe e oyc. Mapcc ya, o o aoe a peay coay ay peooo ocooeo op. Ecea peaa coaa ca, a oopy oo oepec, o opayc poeapa. Hyo paa accooe peoooe coae oo poeapaa. Hyo e peccy, oopoe oepo peooy ee, a pao, a apy. Mapcc coaa ce peaca, ooy o pae aaa o pe Pocc eceo pocxoo. epe apcc xoe oepec e coo a peooy ee, a po oc cop, coo a oe coao-ooec poecc. Mapcc c pepee aaa a yoec coa apoo. Ec pyccoo peooepa-apoa o peyecy ooa, o pyccoo peooepa-apcca o peyecy . B cooec c yco, oopx o pycc apc, apcc caaa ocoeo oepa eepcce ooe ee ye Mapca. O opoc c yoo, c eaeoc opc e, o o, aoe, ope cy ayoo coaa, oop oeae epy oey cy aooepoo oeoo coaoo poecca. Coa ye peyao ooeco eoxooc, xooo pa. epe pycce apcc oe oop o pa aepax pooex c, a ao aee . p o x epecoao e coo cao ooecoe pae Pocc, a ooea e ao, coo opaoae opy peooo op. Taoa a peooa cxoo. e pycco peooo ee ocac a yo e e, o o pope ooe opye op, o oycoa oee epy oy o oa. Mapc oee coo yceo eope, e e eop, a oope o cx op opaac peooa ee, peoa ox yc c. Ho o paccapac, a peoooe opye, pee ceo a opye op po capx apae, oapyx ecce. B aae apcc poo ae eaee eee pax cpex peooepo, e cape couac-apo coac-peooep, a x c aa, o po eppopa, Ho o a oaa eoc, oa ayee ae aapo. Boee pyccoo apca o cepe pco pycco ee, opcee oco x pocoepa. apca o pae oe ee. yo o cyoc apca eo oceoc, o opepoac aex pyccx eex.

Mapc oee cooe ee, e ooeo ya. He yo aa, o Mapc e ep eeoo eaa aaa XIX ea, o poy e xe . Coepeo ae eepax, a pecae eoo eeca, oa, oa o aa ce aepaco, ec poa eaceco ocoe ae ocaac coeopa . Ocoeo y oo Mapca ycyec eo pocxoee o eaa, oopoe aoo ea a c oe aepaa[1]. Mapc ae, oeo, oe oe ocoa cooa apcccy opy, a oceoaey ccey coooecoo eepa. ooa opeee c eoeecy , o ee ac e oo ce cpoee oeca, o c eoo, c yxoa yypa, pe, oco, opa, cycco. ooa ec ac, eoo ec acpoa. Cyecye eopa oe oeceo-ooec poecc, oop ce opeeec. opa pooca oea ec a epopoa o ee ce ocaoe ac. B eoee c op e o ca, a coa acc, oopoy o pae, o c op, a op, py ypya, e ypya . eoe e oe ocooc o opeee eo oo o ee opaae. Taoa oa copoa . Bac oo eoeeco e Mapco yaa e o o oo, o ooa a e a . Mapc ye o opyae eo aaceco oece po. Ho o oo o pa oy yepca xapaep. To, o o op aaceco oece coeo pee, o pa ocoo coo . O ooe op aaceco oece oo epoo caa o e, o oa eo aaac yepcaa acoo. ooec eep Mapca oc coce oco xapaep. o ec paoaee coa. o ea ye eepax peooo coa. Meo paoae coa y Mapca oe aoae o, o eae pe. eoo, oopa ec acpoa, peoe epoa, ococe eop, opae oe, opeco cycce opo opaa coa eceoc, oopa ec pee ceo eceoc ooeca, . e. oea opa eoea c ppoo oepa , ooo oy a y pea ec pee ceo cecyaa eceoc. e opeee coae, o e ec pee ceo aepaoe, xoceoe e. yx ec eoe oo xoceoo . Mapc e eocpeceo o cy eoo cy yxoy yypy oo, a epe ocpco accoo cxoo, .e. coooeco eepe apca ec cxooecoe eo. Xo cyecoae accoo cxoo accooo cae cex e epoa ec ecoea ca, o caa cxoo ec aoee caa copoa apca, cxoo a a paoaceco coepeo .

o o cc coooecoo eepa apca oe coa, yo opa ae a cyecoae apce coce pyo copo, o oc poopeae ooecoy aepa. Mapc ec e oo yee copecoo ooecoo aepaa o oo acoc eoea o oo, apc ec ae yee o ae, o eccaco pa poeapaa, o pye coepeo ece, oopo eoe e ye ye ac o oo, o o oee eoea a ppaoa ca ppo oeca. ya apca y, a e ooeco eepe. eoe eo eeppoa ooo aaceco oece, o oocc pooy. Opeeoc eoea ooo oe cooaa, a pex pooo. Ho yye oe ae, eoe oe ocooe o paca. a cyeo, oop ocoo eoea o paca coac yy , ec poeapa. Ey pcac ecace coca, a eo epeocc coca paoo apoa oeo, o o . o ec ceypa peeepecoo eccacao coa. Pa, oop oo ye epeepy p, ae. y aepa Mapca oopaaec pa eao. Mapc opae aae poecc eyaa, oeece (Verdingli-chung) eoea. C cao eaoe yee Mapca o ee oapo. Bce cop, coao ec poy aoc eoea, eoeecoo pya, eoeeco op[2]. Ho eoe aae epo opoo, oaoo coa, cy oopoo peya eo coceo aoc pya pecac ey oe po, o oopoo o ac. He cyecye eo, oe, ooeco eceoc, o , cyecye aoc eoea aoe ooee eoea eoey. Kaa e ec oea ea peaoc, axoac e eoea, aa ec oecee ooe e pooce. a ooeco eceoc cea cp e coae pypo e. eoe coe aoc oe paca o ppa p aaceeo oo. K oy pa poeapa, oop aae epo o , a oeece poyo eoeecoo pya. poeapa oe opoc po oeece eoea, po eyaa xoca, oe oapy ceoyeco eoeeco aoc. o coce pya copoa apca oa a ca y paeo Mapca[3], Bepy aoc eoea, cyea, o oy o eeoo . o ec epa yx oa e coea c aepao. B apce ec ee acoe ceao oco, oapyae oa oea, peopeae eoeeco aoc p oepoax ee. Too a copoa apca oa y ya a peooy . oec eep pae eoea, oae eo epa aoc eoea, oopa oe coepa yecoe epepoee .

C cao peoooe, aecoe oae ae. Hyo caa, o aeec aepa ec eeoe coocoeae. He oe ae aep, aea peoaae ooc, cc, ooa aea c yxa. Ho Mapc epeec coca c yxa epa aep. Maepaoy poeccy oaaec coceo c, pay, cooa, opeca aoc ooy aepa poecc oe pec opecy cca, oae coa payo ce . aea pepaaec aa eoeeco o, eoeeco . Bce opeeec ye e oe pae aepax pooex c, e ooo, a peooo opo acco, . E. aoc eoea.eoe oe oe ac oo a coe o. peco, o coa Mapca eca, cao apca eoxooc apco coo. cop peo paec a e ac, a pooe, eeppoaoe ooo, oa eoe pao, a yyee, oopoe aec c oe poeapaa ye eo opeec aoc eoea, coaoo eoea, oa ye apco coo. epexo o eoxooc cooe oaec yxe ee. Ho peooa aea apca ec e oeca eoxooc caopacp caopa e, a aoc peoooo eoea, oopoo pooe e o.

Cooa ec coaa eoxooc, o o coae eoxooc oe op yeca, coepeo epepoa coaa ooe, eee. epexo apcy coo ec oea a epopo pexo, oop Mapc e cyaa eoea eoeo. Bec opa aoc Mapca ca c pacpe cyaa, a oco eoeecoo oeca, cyaa pya. Mapc o cea ooecy ecy . ee o paoo eoc, oopoe oapyae cyaa paox aaca, apc ca ay ooec yee. Ho eceoc o ec pee ceo ecoe yee. cyaa ec e ooec eoe, a pee ceo eoe paceoo opa, paco ypoe ooee eoea eoey. Cyecye paeoe poopee ey ay aopao Mapca, oop epe e o ecoo oocoa coaa, pa opao apcco oeax oeceo . Bce yee o acco op oc acooec xapaep. Pae ey ypya poeape ec pae ey o opo, ecpaeoc cpaeoc, ey acya opa oope. B ccee apca ec oec poopeoe coeee eeo aepacecx, ayo-eepcecx, aopacecx c eea eacec, opacec, -. Mapc coa aco o . Mcc poeapaa ec pee ep. Mapc e ec oo aya oa, o ec ae epa, . a ocoaa eo ca.

Pycce ocp caaa apc o peyecy co copo oeo-ayo. oee ceo opao yee Mapca o o, o coa ye eoxo peyao oeoo ooecoo pa, o o eeppoa ca pae aepax pooex c. o o ocpo a . Pycce coac epeca ce ycoa eoe, c a eo. O oycoa ce ay, e yoec, e eae . Hay coa ca peeo ep. Ho epa aea, oopy ae ay coa a ocyecee oeeo e, caa c poe pae, c opaoae acca apx paox. Cpaa, oopa ocaec ceo cecoxoceo pecco, ax ae e ae. ooy epe pycce apcc pee ceo o opoy apoecoe pocoepae, oaa o Pocc paaec oe paac aa. opa a o ec, o Pocc paaec aaceca ycp ceoaeo opocae oeco paox, pecaac peooo opo. Coac-apo aax apcco ppac o .

Ho apc ocp o paoy. ox pae aaceco poeoc Pocc oaao aey a opeco coaa. Boae pao . Hyo oa ce co c a pae coa oo acca. o exao oop: a aa c aa ae oeceo . oop o, o ya e o cao poeoc, a o paox. pyx, peyeceo eax apcco, pae aaceco poeoc popeao caooeee aee peooo-accoa copoa apca oxoa a opo a. Tao pee ceo .Cpye, pecae apca ypyaoo. Te pycce coa-eopa apcc, oope oo oy aeoae eeo, oe opo eco, o coaceca peo ooa cpae c pao aaceco ype. ooy coaceca peo ooa ye Pocc, oa oa epecae o peyecy pecco ceco-xoceo cpao. o apcco cea opo oeo-ayo, eepceco copoo apca, o coxpa cyey, peooo-accoy copoy apa. ocoe paoop epx apcco o eoxooc pa aaa Pocc oooc pecoa o pae pe oy, o cap apoooe .Txopo, oo epee peao aep, o apcco o, o o o ppac pape epoaaoo aoe.

Mapcc ca apoo peaoepa, cpoa ocax op xoca, apo e ca apcco copoa aaa, pa cy pa aaa. eceo pycc apc, o cpae ee e ycpapoao, e paoo poeapaa, oe papac opa popee, oopoe ao a coec ox pycex coaco. Ka oo ea pa aaa, pecoa o pae ece c e ca aa o ecpaeoc, c oopo a coac pa ec opy? o co aeec opoc coae opa o. Pae aaceco ycp Pocc peoaao poeapa pecca, ee eo opy pooca, . e. epee eceoe cocoe aeo ac apoa. Kaa oaa cyaa paox a yo o pecoa ooee x op . B cao acceco apce a oceoc oee aaa ypya. Mapc, oco o co a ooo oe pe paa cyecoae pax ao cop, ooe oopx oea eec, coo oea cc ypya poo po aaa pa aepao o eoeeca. Bc oe apca oe ac o pa aaa pypoae aaceco ycp eccacy e poeapaa, oopa c ayo eo oo e ee. Mapc ep, o apa oo apa coac ooo eea. To e opoc cac epe apco pyo ope: ec apccca eoo aoe e opaee ooeco eceoc, a ce pye eoo, oa peeye a ope acoo c, e aco o copecx op oo ooecx epeco? oco apc oe ae opoc, ec a oco paa aco pea? Bopoc o, a y, ye eapoac coeco . Ho ep ep pycc apcca co opoc opa opoc oaae coaa o opa . M y, o o opa o ye papee e . eo apcc e ye yepa, o coa oe ocyece Pocc oo pa aaa o opaoa ooceoo paoeo . exao e caac po coee peo, epae caoepay oapx, peo coao, o po peooo-coacecoo axaa a, . e. apaee po oyceco peo o ope, a oa pooa. C coao peoe yo a. Ocooee paox oo eo cax paox, a e peoooo pya. peye yee oeca paox, pa x coaeoc, peoaae oee pay poeoc. exao aao pao aya, oopo e ceee ype co Ceo . O po yapca aoopeca, po oca ep oe. aypa eo e oe cea, ec pao acc e oooe peo. oepaec peao xapaep pecco o, eae ooecoy pa. Oepec yo a oe oece poecc. exao e p oecco peo, ooy o cea po axaa ac, oopo ee e oooe ca, . Hyo pee ceo peoopoae coa, a e cxoe ee, peoopoae coa caoo paoeo acca, a e apo opaoaoo eca.

Ho p ao pee Pocc po apca o coao peo poc co oo . Boooc eocpeceo coaceco eeoc Pocc caac o opoc. Peooa o oa ooaeo paaea eeyao eope. aoee peooo acpoee pyce apcc o ae cooa apc ocpo pye eop pycco peo, paoa y . B o pe pyccoo apa peooa o peoaaa a eeya eop, a o-ae coae . pooo eaeoe coeee pa peoooo apca c pa capo pycco peoooc, e eae oyc aaceco ca pa Poc, c epeca, ay, Heae, Tae. Ha o pa e ype, a Mapc coee o Ceo . Mapcc-oe aac opao oee pycco pa, e apc-ee. Ha oe oooo, eepcecoo cooa apca e o opaa poeapco, coaceco peo cpae ycpao ocao, pecco, co ao pa pao acco. p ao oa apca pxooc pacca caaa a ypyay peo, a pae aaa oo ye coepa coacecy peo. o o e oe aopo aa peooo o.

Ha oe epeece Pocc apcccx e cpe pyccx coa-eopao oo ey po apaee ooa, oope oecy peo oaao a epay paay ypya, a aox cao y opaoa co ooecoe, poeccoaoe ee. o o paoe po coa-eopa, oopoe ao pea oee peoooo ee pa. pocxoo ce oee oee paeee yp pyccoo apca a opoocaoe, oee peoooe po a pecoe, oee peopaopcoe po. Paee ey pooca pec apco o oe ycoo-ooce, ooy o, pec apc eoopx ooex oee epe ayo, eepceco copoe apca, e apc opoca, oop ea apca coepeo opae o ooe Pocc o, oope p o p Mapco ec. ya, eepe, y o-ee, ca y oycecx caee, oapy oy ooc c, eae coeopaoe o-oey epoe opeeee peoooc[4]. Peoooc opeeec coce e paao ee ae e xapaepo cpec, peex ope. Peoooc ec oaoc, eococ ooe o coy ay . Peooep o, o ao coepaeo ae ooc eo eoy, o cey o6ecy, oe eo epao eoco ee. peooepa e paex cep, o e oycae poe, e oycae aoo c o ooe ec aoo ec o ooe . Peooep ee epaoe pocoepae, oopo eop paa opaec c. oaapoc o ce ocoo pa peouooo oe . Kpec apc o e e e oee ea, o apc peoo, ca ce opooca, o o paa paee, aooe cep, o e yepa . Moo, apep, o apcco cepe coao e aepaco, ae eaco. Moo o poa e copo apcccoo . Mapc epecaa eoco, oaapo opo, o pepaac eo coao oa coao ope. o poo oaapoc peoooo a. Pycce peooep poo cea oa. Peo a x pee ocoe, a e oo opo, cao c coao oeco copoo . oe paoac pycc apc, cooecy oy peoooy y oy peoooy oaapoy cy. o e oe. oe opee ce ece opooca, .. oaap, epa apco, e oyca poe apcccoo pocoepa p eo oex ace.

o pooca apc, oop eceoc o-pyc pacoppoa apco, ocp pee ceo e eepcecy, ooy, ayy copoy apca, a eo eccacy, oopecy peoy copoy, oycay aa peooo o, ay a ep a peooy opy poeapaa, pyooy opaoa eco, oxoe coaeo poeapco ee. o opooca, aap apc cea peoa coea aepaceco ep, o e ce eacece . O oaa, a ea ac e a eoeeco , ec oa oaa cooecye ca . B apce-oee poeapa epeca peco peaoc, o aece peco peaoc poeapa oe, o pee ceo ee poeapaa, ocee e o e oe eaeoe eco. Ec o eaeoe eco eo oepo aeco ee poeapaa, ec eo peooa o apoaa, ec oo xopoo opaao cpoao, o oo oe coepa yeca, oe peooe eep coao aooepoc. e oaa a pae, o o . O coepa peo o Mapca, o e o Mapcy. Koyceca peo Pocc coepaac o oaapoo apca, apca, a pe poeapaa, o poooooc cey, o Mapc oop o pa eoeecx oec. He peoooy apoecy, a eo opoocaoy, oaapoy apcy yac coep peo, oopo Pocc epecoa epe ca aacecoo pa, oopoe pecaoc co eeo ep pycc apcca. o oaaoc coac c pycc pa ca apoa. B o pe peoooo apoeca , o apoe-pecce a. Hapo e p peooo ee. Hye o peoo . o apoe aee o o poeapae. Mapc pao oe apoa, a eocoo opaa, pao a acc c poooo epeca. Ho e o poeapae o ooy occaoc o pycco . pooo ooecee pyccoo apoa c poeapao, pyccoo eccaa c poeapc ecca. oac paoe-pecca, coeca Pocc. B e apo-pecco coec c apoo-poeapao ope cey oy, o oop Mapc, oop ca pecco eo-ypya, pea acco. Opooca, oaap apc ape oop o poooooc epeco poeapaa . Ha o copac Tpo, oop xoe epe accecoy . Kpecco o oeo peoo acco, xo coecoy paecy pxoc c ocoo opoc, oa oe . e epyc o ooy capo pa pycco peooo . O pooac, o poea ocaoc Pocc, aao xapaep aaa ec eoe peyeco coao peo. He pec e eo c co, opaoao ypyae. Ty e pye oop o, o oop Tae, a o e o, o oop ec. oe opao oee paoe, e o po ya, o coace co coeopae pyccoo copecoo poecca. pooa pycca opeaa apca.

3.

Mapc pyee pycco ee, coae ee caoc. o o e oo eee pocoepa, o eee yeo cpyyp. Pycc coa eac eec ooa ceea, oee eeyao oocoa oee ec. epe pycce apcc oee epoea, oee aa , e apo. poyac o oyecy, popee c oac eoo c. Mo cocpaa ocaeae, e opeee ye a peooo op. Ooee apoy-poeapay opeeec ye e coo cocpaae eo yeeoy, ecacoy ooe, coo epo o, o o oe oe, o o pya ca ocooe eoeeca. Ho p cex yex ee ee ocoa ooa ocaac a e cae apca coao pa cpaeoc, epococooc, aceecoe ooee yype, eocoe, oaapoe ooee , opeeeoe ao e ocyecee .

aao pycc apc co ee, e pae . o oapyoc aee. Ec oa ac pyccx apcco oee ceo opoa eoc, oaap xapaepo coeo peoooo pocoepa, oxpaa co opooc oaac pae eepooc, ec apc coa x pee, o pyo ac pooa epea pax yypx oace, a apyea peooa eococ pooo cooee oaeo yxa yooo opeca. pa paa pe, oco, cycca, eaco o coaoo yapa pao , . e. paa yxa, oope opac pycc o, peoo apoeo aapxo peoo apco. Ta a apce coae epea e pe, eocoe pocoepae, oeaee a ce opoc , o ocoooc eco peox ca, yxooo opeca. Ka o cpao c epoo a, o eo ep apca, copee poe pecoo, e opoocaoo, o y ac eacecoe, a oo peooe eee. K ey paea C.yae, e ce poeccop oaecoo ooco, a ae y cpo[5].

pooe pc pocoepa, opaeoo ceo occopoey, eo pacpc o, oycopo, yxo p. Hacy oe ceoy ococy aepaa oa pycco ee. a oooc aoo eaecoo peooo oopoa eac ecoa opa. eacecoe eee o ocpo co cpao pao, a apccco aepe, a capo apoeco paao aepe. o oopo paccapac, a ea ocooeo ope. B aepe apcco o po epoaao opy op opoocaoo, . e. oaapoo, apae apae pecoo, oycaeo coeee apca c o, e aepaceco ocoe pec epecop eoopx copo apca. B aee ee oopaoc o c c pa opa apca npepaoc opy a caocoeoc yxox eoce oa, cycce, opao peoo . Coay ac a eooecoe, ecoe oocoae. o o peooee pa pyccoo a, yoa, aepaa, oa. B oe oo o peo oy, o eoc, oaapoc aa ca e peo, a pe. B aae XX ea Pocc aco yyp peeccac, peo, ococ, xyoece. y pooe opa pa eo pycco epayp pycco peoo-ococo c. O epecoo exaoa opac ocoecoy, .Tocoy, B.Cooey. Ho yype eacece ee aa ep c c coa peoo ee, o ce oee oee ep po coa ac. Opaoaac yypa a, e oaaa a poe py pyccoo apoa oeca. o o paco, oop a oaa cop pycco ee. B o a caoc eacecoo e. o eo pooe ocec eoo pycco peo, ee yxoopca.

B pycco epxe yypo coe aaa ea aco peeccac yxoo yyp, oac pycca ococa oa c opao peoo ocoe, pace pycco o, oce ece ae ceecoo yca poyoc oocpeoe ceecoe coae, poyc epec opoca yxooo opa, oop y ac aae XIX ea. Bepe oe Pocc oc yoe yyp, paae c yaooc. o o pe coa, ea, c. pyccoo yypoo co co oe a coe epoeco yyp. Opooe aee e o pe He, e oopoo cpeaoc c e ocoecoo. eeo oco ao epec a ae ce, a e p.aaep. po epe cea, epe paycx . Ho pycc co e ocac cepe ceo-xyoeceo, o cpo epee cepy -. Bo op oy aee pycce ce oyae ee ao ece eoeee Xoo, B.Cooe, K.eoe, H.eopo, B.Poao. Ho o ce poceeeco, ceco, apoeco ooce pycco c oep epec. o o pe, a a ae Becaa aoa, a aaac appa a eco ae po Tapecoo opa caoo yoeoo pyccx oo-cooco,pocxo ay cpey yoeee ece a ceo-cece e. B o pe y yeaa epa peo 1905 oa. Mey epx ao pycco yyp e o o eo oeo, o paco. a a pax aeax. B oe ee oe oxapaepoao a coeopa pyc poa, o coe peoo apaeo pe o epexo peooy peay. Heo coao-peaooo yypo peeccace aaa ea e o, oe eo ee ae opeeeo coycoa peo . Ho epec coa opoca cae ee yxoo yyp e e aoo a pocxoee coao-peoooe poee, o coao o, coca ayy y.

B o e pe pocxo ype cop oea eeo apocaa oecca apa opaa. exao, aa eecco pa coa-eopa, eopeo apca, a e peoo oe. Haco peoo oe e, coae pyccoo pooo oycecoo e. Pao pycco coa-eopa a oueo eeo aac c pocxoeo ooe 1903 oy cea coa-epaeco . oe a o cee oy oeceoe oco, ee e eco. Oe epeca caa cya coa oe. epoaao o coo coepeo eceo oaae copoo oc. Ho oo oo popeae coee cc. Co coo oea accopoaoc oe c, co coo e ee oe cpaeo caoc. B cx peo 1917 oa occae apoe acc ec oeo, a co, oopa oe ae, o pe a ee pecac ca, o ae ee. Cpooe ao ayee o coey pocxoe coo oe popeo aee ae, oya, caoe coo yao co paeo. Ho oe xapaepo pacoa pycco yyp, o oe ee ce ee peoooo coaoo e oxoc coce e e e, oope ococoa epxe coe pycco yyp, a ya pycca oco, x e epecoa opoc yxa, o ocaac aepaca oc. Kyyp ypoe e oo cpex peooepo, o oao peo e co, c x ypoea. O ocac y oy e yxa, oopoe poecoc a Epoo Pocce oe XIX aae XX ea. ocaac y e ocoecoo, .Toco, B.Cooea. He, ea epacoo eaa, coa, ooe e xpcaca. oee coa ycea yypa a y eeo pypoaxc opy oa ocooe, opaa opaoaec 1903-4 . pecae po epao-paa o op a oecy cooy po . B o oe poe py eo ee ac coec c epa ee ecoo opocoo caoypae, e yaoa oee yepee coa-eopa. Ho o Co ocooe, oopo yacoa aee eeyae c, e o oae peoo ee, oy o Pocc oo e ycex ee o coo coaa, a e coo paa, epeeo oxoeoe oaap pocoepae. eeapoc pyoc e peo 1905 oa, oopx ycoaoc acee yccoo a, ooy eee yypoo peeccaca a yxoy pea. B o pe pooa epeoea eoce pocoepa pycco ee. o ao cee paee ayee coe pe cope Bex, oopo oepy peo pe aepa, o, yap peooo ee, ee paoye c eoc yxoo . pocxoa opa a yx, o opa a e ea pooo coaoo . o capo pa pycco ee op a yx a ocpa, a pea, o a ea ocooe cpeee. Taoa a pepeooa yypa aocepa. Byp e peoooo e oapyac caoc eoooeoc coa-eopao eeo coaco-peooepo, pooax apoece pa. o o pe ocyapceo y, aa pyccoo apaea, ee ooo ecpaoo, opaoae epe oo epao ap a aaex aeo o aeco . Moa. Ha oepxoc pycco epa a yo aa pa ooo oy po c oo o cac paeco. Ho ca oo apaoc cye Pocc pycco peo o, o epae e, e paa, a e coaoo peopa, oaac Pocc yoec. oe e oaac aeee yoec aoee peacec, aoee coecy ce cy, a oa coac Pocc 1917 oy, aoee ep eoop co pycc pa, pycc ca yepcao coao pa, oo acacec, pycc eoa ypae acoa ace[6]. o o opeeeo ce xoo pycco cop, o ae caoc y ac opecx yxox c. Koy oaac epao cyo Pocc, ype oeo cye pyccoo apoa.


 

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2001,

 



[1] C. poa Conu.

[2] Mpc cox o epae: Der Hauptmangel alles blaheigen Materialismus 1st, dass der Gegenstand, die Wirklichkeit, die Sinnlichkeit nur unto der Form des Objekts oder der Anschauung gefasst wird, nicht abe als sinnlich-menschliche Ttigkeit, Paxis, nicht subjektiv, Marx: Thesen tibe Feuerbach. o eco copeo po aepay .

[3] y opy pc noepae paae y, ca y oyc , e: Lukacs Geschichte und Klasstnbewusstsein. Studien Ube marxistische Dialektik.

[4] C. e

[5] epa a 1900 . Cye ya oeceo pecaa oy cepoa ap c eaceco coe Kaa .

[6] B cae acao 1907 . oee o y yo e, C, 1910 ., opee , o ye coa o peo, e e oe . (pe. -: e e o pycc ).