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ABA VII

KOMMHM XPCTAHCTBO

Bopoc o ooe oya pe ocoeo xpcacy peye ocooo paccope. Heppo paeoe ooee oya o co pe e ec ee cyaoe, oo pae cao cyoc oycecoo pocoepa. Koycecoe e ocyapco ec aypa pocoepa. Koycec cpo ec pa a, e ocyapco oaapo, acoo, o peye pyeoo eca c. Koy oae oe a ce ep oee ceo a epo paocay, y ee copeco po. Koyc coey ocy ae o oa ec apeoy . Koy, e a coaa ccea, a a pe, aaec paee co pe oee ceo xpcaco. O ca xoe pee, ye a cey xpcacy, o peeye oe a peoe apoc eoeeco y, a cc . Koy eoce, o oxaae c , o e oocc ao-o coao oac. ooy eo cooee c py peo epoa . Heepoc, aa cea e peo co. Haa aya, o eeyaa eop e oe co eepa a. Ka peooe epoae, oy . Opoy po y pae pycc peo eepae, pycca ceaca paco cxoo. Ho eppoe, ocyee ooee pe o peopeeeo ca Mapco. Mapc caa Bee pe oco paa ee, o pe ec oy apoa, paa oya c ayaoe aee Pocc. Mapc ya, o ocooe paoeo acca, a ceoaeo ceo eoeeca, yo pa eoeecoo cepa peooe yco. Mapc oop: e peoa cooa coec, a ocooee coec o peooo cyeep.


Peoe epoa opaa eoeecoe paco, paco y cxx c ppo ppaoax c oeca, o cyecy o ex op, oa eoe, coa eoe, e oae ooaeo cx ppaoa ca, opy eo . cox cx o pe Mapc yeo eepaxa, o paa c eepaxa coao apae. eepax ca ea aecec ocoo XIX ea, oe ocp oo a apoooeco oco ooe. eepax, a eco, xoe pepa eoo apooo. eo e eoe coa o opay oo oey, a o coa o opay oo eoeecoy. Pe ec paee ce ppo eoea, oopa oaec, oyaec o eoea epeocc paceey, oycopo oac. Pe oea, opaa eoea. e eoe ee oaoo oa. Bce oaca epeece a oa, cooe Ey. Bepa oa paae caoc, eoc, paco eoea. eoe c, oa, co e yac oe, o ce cee e y caoo ce. Mapc cea oca o o, o epa oa ep poeapa caoc, eoc, yeoc. Peoe epoa a ope, e yee, epeoc oey e peay oac ooy ea peao oee ocooe. oeooc poeapa oepe ce ope, e, oycopoe yee, o peaye oey ec, a ee. ee Mapca o x coa, x peox eooecx, opaax paco acoc eoea, eo caoc yeoc, o y eepaxa. Ho Mapc pa ye o opoc coa oee pe, coa xapaep. Bocy ae Mapca peoa pee ceo ee coa. Peoe epoa o yoe e po paccpeo oee, a peoopoae coa, oopoe pocxo cece peooo accoo op poeapaa. Mooo Mapc ocoeo epecoac opo po peox . eo o a pee ceo eeyaa opa, a pyo aypa. O axoc pyce eoo eeca. Bocec epec opoca, ca c paoo pocoepa, ocae. Mapc ac o peyecy opoca . Ho o ocaec ocy aeco. Bpoe, yo caa, o apeooc y Mapca paaac eee pae ope, e y ac y aya, e epa y pa. p, peca coaa poooo apcy c aapxec yoo, po oop, o coaceco oece pe ye apeea. ec, oop aca co ay y ope p ococx coax o pa, ae opaa ey ooy apee pe. Bocyee poceee oo pae opy ocyeo aea. Pay, oae coo ocooc o coax eo pa, poooaaec epe oa. o cea ec epexoa ca, oopo pay e coae, acoo o ac o opaex aeo, pay oee pe eceo oee coo coae co pa ee coe ooee peoo epe. Pycc pocee pay axoc epo ocye ca o eo axoc o ac aeo o. M o y ea.

e cpac yee aeco eaco pe. oop aeco, xo e ep cyecoae cx aeco. eoe ec peooe ooe , oa o opae coo, eoo oa, o coae cee ox oo, oo ypo, ooec . e oe py e Mapca o pe, a e opy e caoo ea. e o ee pyoc ao eo c. Mapca poea pe a pee ceo poeo ee coa, caoo, oeo, c coao . ea poea pe ec o ceo poea peooo op ee ocaoa pcocoea y o . e pa ypy ea. Ho ooopece ea e y, e yx oo eepaxa, He, e oo, o pacpaoc y ocoecoo, e ypee pa. Mc ea o pe, papocae pax eo coex, copa a oeo[1]. Bcpeac, ap. ae pa: Bc oea ec pyooco. e ae coe opeeee pe, copee eaoecoe, e ayoe: Pe ec o o yxooo ea, eaeo ee ocy a apox accax, aaex eo paoo a pyx, yo ooeco. ee opeeee: Pe po yxoo cyx, oopo pa aaa o co eoeec opa, co peoa a coo-y ocoy eoeecy . o opeeee ao o ee 1905 . Ocoeo ae e ce o coe xpcaco c coao. Peop ep eo peee epocoeca, popeccoe ooeoe xpcaco xye capoo, paaaeoc xpcaca. Kaoec o, pacea eyy, e e, opao eee oace, e o e pc, o e pyo pe, o e eopaec, pooey coae coopee oe. o epoo oa ee paoa, ocy a, a opoo e a poco, paoa eo cy pa pyee. a aeop oa e pc pae e ay po apeoo poaae. o oe poa aeop. oa e pc oaac ce e aepac, ce pae yxooe aao, xo cao ao cee, ce oco ee cpyacec eacec . ae e pa epeoe oo, ooy o o pa cyecoae ocecoo yca, oopoe oo o aa . e eae caoe coo pe o e poe oa e pc, ooy o o pooeoa a o oo pe ac ea yaapc. yaapc o e poe oa e pc, ooy o o pooea oopoeco, oopoe cyoc o opo aea ae ocyeo aea. Ho p ce eac ea po pe, o po oo, o a peoy poey a ep a ca opy c pee caocoeo aae, oo o peooo accoo op. e ae caac po apooo ocope peox yc, xo o ca x pyo ocop. O peoeye a paycx aececx ocoo XV ea oapyae, acoo ae apca-ea ac o ypyaoo poceeca XVIII ea.

Xo yx poceecoo aepaa XVIII ea oe ce oye, o pycce oyc, ceac o apeoo poaae, ea pae ey poceeco opo paao ypya po pe accoo, poeapco, peooo opo po pe. B coeco peoo epaype oe opo, o apeoo poaae oeeo oeoe eco exaoa yop eo a o, o o opoc c pee, a pocee, ooy e aceo-opoyoe ooee . exao ya, o poc pocee pee ececeoy opa peox epoa. Pe cee caa coo, caoeo, e cpaco op, cao c ace. exaoa o pee co opoc ee coa, . e. opoc ay ococ. ec poooaa oy peooy accoy opy po pe, opy eeo epexoy . Moo pa oepa, o opa c pee eaya, a poceee, a accoa. Tae aopee aae apcc, a Kayc Kyo, oe oc pocee, e oa peooo accoo op. Kayc Kyo oc, a e aeece aepac, . e. apae ypya paao. Ka Kaycoo pocxoee xpcaca coe pe a oe ea apccco cpee, coeco Pocc epe o e ooac apeoo poaa. Toe yo caa o e Kyoa pocxoee ep oa. Ho c ex op, a ycaoac eepaa coeco oco apeoo poaae, Kaycoo Kyoa oepy pa ecooecy opooc apca-ea. Kayc cae xpcaco c ee pcoo poeapaa. a oa pe paa peo, a a oa oe y paoe-pecc acca ca xpcacy. Kpoe oo Kayc paccapae xpcaco e coo c o pe op acco, coo a peya oec coao cpe, . e. o coe exaecoy, a e aeecoy oce, o ec epec. Kyoa o o, o o oyec eop 6ypyax yex, ap., eope aa Teopa, oce pocxoe peox epoa. O oc, a e ae. e apeoo poaa pey paccope pe ceo a opy accooo yee. Bca pya oa pe a pe paec ypyao. opooca aeec aepa ae eceo epoe oae cyoc co . O ooo coec oco aca y o pocxoe pe c o pe apccco cooo. B cycc, oopo ocyaac a a, a aopa ypoae ope a a o, o o eo e oop coe e o ax ea a a oe. Ap oa pao pya ocae, o o cex coex ea e ooo coa o a, o oee, o o e ae, o ea. Cc oo eeoo aoa . Coe ea ceoe cae, a ceo ca ce ooe opoc o pepee.

B apce cea cao cao copoo a coo, a ee, cece peoaa eao, cxoo ee caee, pyee eeapee. ae cxoo acco coax py coce e papaoaa aeec eeap opa oe. Ty ec coce e coco eeyao-oaaeo ycaoe, x ycao ce ooae. Taa e oa oac, a oac peoo cxooa coce . Coeca epaypa o apeoo poaae co a oe o eeyao ypoe ceec eepeoca o coey c, o ca po epayp coeco Pocc. Heoao py, eyc , p ce coe eeapoc, ao o apo acca coece apeoe appayp. Bpaaaec ea eooo op po . Apeoa poaaa eec oaoc ce coec ocoa, pa opooca, .e. paa eepay . opa c pee, co co pee, xo e a, oop e ec oo a ooec, o a oaoo epeycpoca . Bece c e coa, o pcoe epoa oe y apoe, oee y, e ce caoe c oeco ooeco . a pa a apeoo poe oyc ep aoe opae. B apeoo npoaae pxoc cac c e, o aa peo cyeep pepaccya peccx paox accax. Meo apeoo poaa o c cac. Moo oyco, eo ap ece c e epy, xpcao, oo pae coay popay oya e pae oycecoo pocoepa, e aeec aepaco eoo? Tao ocoo opoc.

2.

Koyc, oe o coa-epao, e pa, o pe ec acoe eo, eo o coec. Haoopo, o ca, o pe ec eo caoe oee, coaoe. pae pe ac eo, . e. pae cyeoo paa coo coec, ec o apapa epao-eopaecx popa o p coa-eopae epao eopa. Ca Mapc, pa pe oyo apoa ea pece a yx cooe paoeo acca eoeeca, e o ca pe ac eo. Pe ec eo coao op. Pycc oy eae oceoae pa o oe pe Mapca a pe, oopoo e xoea cea coa-eopa, aa ce eoope p epaa. Koyc aa ooeo coa-eopao coa-peae ey po ca x peae opoce peo. Coa-eopa, ae pooe ce ca apcca, oyc co cpey aece eo ap epyx xpca, ae acpe poeccopo eoo. Ho o a, o coa-eopa e xoe pocoepae, oa xoe oeco ape, cceo coax . e oop ye o aco , oop opao oee ca c xpcaco, e c apco. Koy e pee ceo xoe pocoepae, o aape ooy opoc peo eo oe ae. Pycc oy, oy ooe e ec pyccoe coae c co popay cpo opeeeoo pocoepa. B 13 ocy oyceco ap, e oo pycco, o epaoao, oopc, o a e oyceco ap oe aeco ec apeoy poaay. O eo ap peyec pepaee ax-o e c epo. e oo ycao p, ax oe epac oyc coe ooe pe. O cooae, ao cce yo oa, o pe ec acoe eo. Pe ec acoe eo o ooe ypyaoy ocyapcy. B ypyao ocyapce oyc o a cooy coec, a oeee ep o ocyapca, o ocaa o p, o pe ec acoe eo. Ho ce aeec eec, oa cac opoc o ooe pe yp oyceco ap, a ceoaeo yp oycecoo ocyapca oeca. Pe coce e ec acoe eo yp oyceco ap, y oa caoe oee, caoe coaoe eo, y ya ecoaa opa c . Koyc, aco epa oyc, e oe peo, epy eoeo, e oe xpcao. ea oyeco ap oaeo opeeeoe pocoepae, o oe aepaco aeco p o cy aeco. Heocaoo pae coay popay oya, o eo oyceco ap. Koy ec coeae opeeeo ep, ep pooooo xpcaco. Bc coeca epaypa yepae aoe oae oya. Koyc oepa, o o po xpcaco, eaeco opa, opa , aoc, cocpaa. o oe ec caoe cpaoe oye.

o oopycec coopae peaa ea cee paox peoo opoce. Ta a y paox a ee oca peox pepaccyo, o x oo pa oycecy ap, ec o pae coay popay oya, e cpac o x peox epoax. Ho pecaee ee o eoyco. Oe xapaepa cop co ec oyco Xexyo. O ac yepa, o pe ec eo coec aoo eoea o oo oyco epy xpcao. a o a Xexya oe peo aa, o oepc oe ypoy opae co copo pocacoo[2], aoo ceaca o apeoo poaae, ey oc, o pe e ec acoe eo yp oya. Ceac e oyceco ap e oe xo epo, e oe oapya ao-o peoo ep. oee oo, o eaec oope, ec oapyae xoooc apeoo poaae e coeye ocyeo aea. Koyceca ap o oe cpyype, o yeoy cay cox aeo pecae o-o poe aececo ce, peoo aececo ce, axaae co py ac.

Hapaco ya, o peoe oe coeco Pocc apae po paocao ep, oopa a epo ococye caa a poo c oapxe peae. Cea, ap., ac, oc oee oac, e paocae, c opa paec oee pyo eo ooy, o poo o ca o e ca c ca ococoa p capo pee. Xpcae, oope pa pay oya oac coao, cac oee pe oac, e xpcae, ope c pecapaopa . Coooca, aececa aepaceca ypya ye, e pae coycye oyy, oa oe cooaa coacecoo cpoeca, a oo ae paoya pocoepa, o pe a xpcae-oyc paa eococ oycecoo pocoep. e o opypoa[3].

B pyooe epaype, oceo apeoo poaae, e peoeyc peoe peceoa. Ceac o eo poca oop, o eoo coaa yeo. Ho aec yeo o oa. Ce ocae eeoeece yco cyecoa, o e, e eeapx eoeecx pa, ap coeco ocyapce. Cyee ya o xo oca aoe ooee, o e o . Heoco opaoe aepaoe ooee ceo, po oopx e oyo ax oe. o ooee ae a eo, o oa peoa ocae py. Ho ecoo ceo poe oo ocoo apecoa, cca Coo paccpea. Koyco, oceax epo, ca ap. Coecx cyax a oceee ep a . ocea ep oo ao, e-y a pooooo oe opoa, a opae. Opoe coeae xpcaco ep coeco Pocc peye epoa, a aco y. Ce o coe poecc oe oop o oe ep, e e ep ey apeeo oop o oe. Coo peoo coec coeco Pocc, oeo, e . Coeca ocy, oea epo o ocyapca pooaaa cooy coec, e ee aoo ae. py ec e oo eca paa, o oa xo pocopae oya, ceo epoye. Ooeo pecae coeco ac, oa oop o apeox oex, oea, o oe e, o pecey ceo oppeooepo, aox oe oo cpe ecoo, ceo epyx p, o epo pecec, ocoo oa ec oa peaox, pecapaopcx acpoe. Ho oy oaecoy oce poope o a, o oyc o cex epaypx paex x poope, x coceo ep, pey cye op po co pe. O cay, o o opa ea, ecya a coae. Ta peca cee Mapc opy po . o co eopeecoe paccyee. Caoe aoe o, o pycce oyc peca ceac ac, x pya axoc ocyapco. o ocyapco ox ayp, a aypa ec aypa pocoepa, aypa e oo oeca ooeca, o eeyaa, aypa a yxo, a coec, a c. aypa a e cecec cpecax oyec ce . o eopa, ceoopoa eopa, oa pacopa aoco yo. ye opeeec eeoc opa coo coec c, eeoc peox oe.

Bce eopeece, ee, ococe cop ce paece, oece, ooece cop coeco Pocc co o ao opooc epec. Bce pae ee yo oco oe paccapac, a yo epeece. pocxo ocooe oee epeo peceoae oex epec. Ho paee ey opooce epec ec paee peooe, eooecoe, a e ococoe e oecoe. Koa oa ocaea o a opooc, o ocyapco paccapaec a epo eeo peceoae a epoa e. Ta o cpeeeoo xpcaco eopa, a coeco, oyceco eopa, a epoco pee apce, a o co ocyapce, peey a oaapoc. oa po, ca aeae eope caoepa, coa oe paocaoo apca, p oopo ap oe aoc o cace y cox oax. y ep epexo a ocyapco. Koyceca ac oe ac o cace y cox oax, oa xoe oca x eocacae ce, oa ae cy, cy aeecoo aepaa. Koyceca ac, e e opaea, ec eac xpcacy, oopo co paca, cyaa, . Koyc peao eeece epocee opocax peox, o opec o e oa, yc ce coceo peoo epo. Koyceca ac epeo poe oy oc oe, oa ae oe oopyca eyapoo oe, e a ycy oe ooeco, oa ooa a eoopy cooy cycce epaype. Koy eec, oopye, o aoapyec, eaec oee yyp, oycec ypyaaec o oypyaae ec oa oacoc e oya oo, o pycco e pe. Ho ec oac, oopo oy eee, ecoae, aae e a ae ycy e e, o oac pocoepa, oco, a ceoaeo pe. Bc coeca ococa epaypa epaypa o apeoo poaae caa ecpocea, caa yepca oaeea. oa o epayp peocxo ce, o xpcaco eoo. oa aec, o coeca ac copee oe a occaoee aaa ooeco , e a cooy peoo coec, cooy ococo c, cooy op yxoy yypy. a eac pe xpcacy ee yoe op poo xpcaca.

Heac pyccx oyco xpcacy aae cee poopee, oopoo e coco ae e, e coae oaeo oyceco opo. y oyca, . e. eoea eo axaeoo cyee ee, cocooo a opoe ep a ecopc ya, ooe oo cece xpcacoo oca eoeecx y, cece epepao aypaoo eoea xpcac yxo. Peya o xpcacoo a eoeece y, co epoo aeoo, ocac oa, oa coe coa oaac o xpcaca ae ca eo paa. Ec oyc, o apeoa poaaa ooaeo cpe ce xpcaca yax pyccx e, ec a yo coe peooe yco, o ocyecee oya ceaec eoo, o o e oeae ec ep, o e ye ye oa , a cyee cepxo e, ooaeo oe ypa, yaeo oo o cox epecax. o oce ceac ye pae e ay po o eo e poecc oypyaa. Koy o coe ee xoe ccyec e oo cpaeoc, o paco eoeecx ooex, oyo ey . Ho ao ceo ya, o paco ey oe ocyeceo ye ee pyeo coao ypo, ye p, a oop e. oo yo ece yx yxox . Maepacec aecec oy opee a eyay a e a coae oeca, oooo exay, oopo e ye ye pa eoeecoo opaa. e e eee oyc, o xpcacy oae ocoae c co eeoc a epee peoo ep, . e. opae ee a pee e peo, ea xpcaco pe ooe. oo o yoe cepee p, oope e oy ceo ca c coeae oeeo eop, paeo . Xpcae, oae oyco a x eoe a apeoe oe, e o c y oaa ceo a x oyco-eoo, o o a ce oo ac , aey ac. O o e oo oe cy, o ac. Moo xpcae cea ocyece xpcaco pa coao , ac o ocyec paco e e o eac ac, oopx o oa oyco? pex xpca, pex copecx epe oe e pex ey a coo cpaey apy. ea aea Xpca, opaee xpcaco ep cpeco oepa ococyx acco e oo e a o eoeeco caoc oae o xpcaca ex, oope pye cpaa o o e o o pae xpcaca. popoo, Eae, aococx ocax, y oue ac yee ep axo ocyee oaca oax, opae coceoc, yepee paeca cex e epe oo. C.Bac Beoo, ocoeo y C.oaa aoyca, oo cpe ae pee cye o coao epae, cao c oaco coceoc, o epe ee pyo Mapc. e ep caa, o coceoc ec paa. C. oa aoyc coepe oyc, xo o , oeo, oy e aaceco, e ycpao ox. C o ocoae oo caa, o oy ee xpcace yeo-xpcace co[4]. Ho copo aaac oxa, oa xpcaco o pcocoeo apcy ecap coeo pee. o ceao ope, o xpcaco e ec oo ca, o oopo oe cope p, o o oo oe coao oeo ycpoe apca ecap. Xpcae, epapx, eco, ce aa aa ocoye acc oax, ac yx. Cea oe o ye o epopoo pexe, opaae coe cyecyee o ecpaeoc. Cpaa cece pa oe cace y o o peo a opao acca yee, opee a cpaa cece, o oey-o e peeo yeae aca. Xpcacoe cpee o oo cooao cooae ooac opa eoeecoo ococa, peoa oopoc coy coaoy y. Xpcaco ooac opaa peoc eoea, a . Hyo cea o, o epo ee a pax cca. Ceee x yx cco ee ep opae ooo x ee pooe ocec. epo ec cecoe eo Xpcoo, yxoa peaoc, pooaa op Xpca coo ee ec opoee, ece oa a eoea p. Ho epo ec ae coa eoe, coa y, oa caa c coao cpeo cae a cee ee e, axoc o aoec c ocyapco, ee coe pao xoco, co ee coa. epo, a coa cy, a ac cop, pexoa, cocoa ae cae eo c xpcaca, aa peeoe eoeecoe a eoe oeceoe. epo cop ec oe co ooeoeec, a e oo oece poecc, eoeeca ee copoa opea. Ho ea ca Xpcoo ep copoeo ecye epe epo, a coa cy, cea ooce o. Mapcc-ec o epo, a coa eoe cy, eo a e . x ce poeo apyy, x e yxoo , oa ec eoe, e ocoe, yxepoe e epe y. Ho oy yo o, a o xpcacoy py, e oapyaec c cy oae o ecoeo . Ca oyc oo e oa o e oy. Koyc oa ype, acece ea xpca, o ca o pooa ea e e ype, acece . x oeceoc a ea ac oe ea, ooy o o e a c xpcaca, o o oece a o, o e xo a o c.

Oe ae eepa, ae o-ac[5]. K poo oe cyoe . Ec eep poco aa oy oycecoe pocoepae, ce o co. Ho ooee eo pcacy oe, e y epax oyco, epoo o coey pooy o xoe coxpa eoop ooe cc a xpcac, peo pooaa eo xpcacy . Eo ooee xpcacy aoae ooee ceaa paoacec-opacecoo a. Bce, o eep oop o xpcace, ceecye o o, o o coce e e oa yxoo ceco copo xpcaa. epo eo ceo ec ee coaoe, opeeeoe cpeo apaeoe ce oe ococyx cop . yxoo copo ep o ecocoe ye. Pe o o cpaa, oop oo cypyec, o ee oce ceo . eep cae ecoe, o eoe pocxo o oeoopaoo pea, . . ee ooe pocxoee. Coopayc c ococye oaeo coeco Pocc ocoe, o, oeo, co a aeeco oe pe, xo ceo ycoe eeca e e o. eep paocao ep e cpoy op (a oop, oeo, o e ac), c c oapxec ocyapco pacoe ey noee, oop yxoeca. cea occopooc eepa e ooe ey oycoa ey o cace eo . eoc pcaca eo ceo opa opaa coao . paocae oaaec opo xpaca, e coae coe opa e e a yyee coao . poea peoa eo oaaec ooaeo oo coao oe. ooy e opoca o ce. o ec ao-cacoc paa, oop oe ycyec y eepa oop cyoc poope oycecoy pocoepa, peeyey a ae acoo c. eep aooe pyccoo oya aaa, o o coce e epa oyc, eo pocoepae eecoe. eep oae .Tocoo , o-oy, coe oa xpcaco a, a oa eo .Toco, .e. pee ceo opa. o ec acee ceacoo xpcaca eepa. Ca coe ya, o .Toco poyee xpcaco coec aoceeo xpcaco pe o eo pe copecoo xpcaca o oo pa. oop ye, o y .Tocoo ee pyccoo a, oope ea eo o peeceo pyccoo oya. Ho eooo oca cea o o, oopoy, o-oy, coec eep, o oy ocyece e Tocoo. Koyceca eoo, ocoeo paa, opo poooo ye Tocoo. Koy ec paee poee ace, pa a, yeee execo ae ycpe, opae ececeoo paca e, oopaoc o eocpeceo c c ee, cpeee peooo aaa . ee .Tocoo ec yee o epoe ace, aapxecoe opae ocyapca, execo a ycp, pae ececeoo paca e, c c ee, yepee peooo aaa .

B cox aaex a pooe paocao ep Pooc eep aco ae aec pa. He eo ee, a oaa, o cop ep, ooe cop xpcaca, ec aeo cee cop eoeecx pexo, e, ae, eccoecoo oopa. Co pee Koaa epo e coo oaeaa apco ecap, coo oac apcy ecap. cop pe, cao c coao cpeo, c coa ye epeca, cea aaa oe eca a cee, e cop pe, cao c opoee yxoo . Ho oo yxoa caoc ceoa, oo oaeoc yxa ee cpeo po oca oy ae, o aoo opoe e, o yxooo pa e. eccopo epo, a coa cy, a Pocc oea ae opaoea ocyapcy. ea acoc ep o ocyapca a e o epoc epo, oa ococ epo. eccopo ae, o yxoeco Pocc o yeo aco ooe o oo yepo coe pyooee aee, ocoeo co pee pacoa. Ocoeo o ypoe ecoaa. Eco, oope epo aapcoo a oac ococ epo e yxoo pyooee aee, pepac oo, yepaopo, oyax e e paeax apeax. Eco ooeo peceoa cape, . e. e aoee yxox, coe poee caoo peoo . Aaooe ee aoeco ep. eccopo, o a pex pooo paocao ep pxoc pacaac peo. epoe e o oaac o ce copeco ep co cap peo. Ho coae ceo oo e ee opaa aae. poec po paeo oe ep capoy apcy ecap a e oe ec peoa paeo oe ep ooy apcy ecap, xo oo eoao ce . p ce aeco epoc ooo oo, o oop eep o paca o oo o caa o poo aoa poecaa eo oee cyee ooo paae c epcey. o eeo, ooy o eepa e cyecye yxa yxoo . paocaa epo coc eo ceo e opooc, opoep ocaa capx . Coycye o ceo paoacec cea. Ho ecoaa a yy pyccoo apoa, oppoaa y yy copoea yxoa paoca, a e e, oaa epooc. Hapaco eep co ypecy ep eey opy, ey-o poe cyeepo a, a o pe a e ec yxoa ya, ec oopaee eeco , ee Xooa o ep, . e. yee o coopoc cooe, pecaec eepy yoe, oopa e oa e a peaoaa, oo ooy, o eo peaoc cepaec peco aoc, o o e cocoe o cyecoa eoo oooeco cce pa, oop axoc a po pec, poooaaec ey ece c e ecye e. ooy ep o pyy pexoy p e ee eaoo opaa, . e. cecoo ea Xpcoa. Bc pycca opeca peoa XIX XX ea, aa c Xooa caoo o cee aaa XX ea, oa pex pycco copeco ep epeo oop oee pee e, e eep. paocaoy xpcay ocoecoy pae coo, o pycca epo apae. He ye pycc oy, eepa, o oapy yey o ooe ep co cap ocyapco. o cea oe peo oop , oope epy ae ca ce copoa eao oapx Xoo, .Caap, .Acao, ocoec, B.Coe oe . Pycca opeca peoa c, aa c Xooa, coa a yx peoo peopa a paocao . Oee po yxoo epapx, ocoeo ecaa, ec cao ooe ee y ex pecaee paoca, oope eo oeo e e c ceaco. Heoopo oac e oo cea, o e pycce peoe ce, oop eep coe e paa aoo ae. Ho eep eo e oop o opoo ooeo coao po ep aapc epo, o e pee Pyc, e oop o ooex ex pycco . O e oae, o pyccoe paocae, yoe opaa, oe oo ypee ocao y ex pyccx e, oope coa o eo oo, o ao ye pyccoo apoa cae apca oeo pa Eo, po eoeoc cocpaaeoc, co opaec pycco epaype. eep e oae, o, ec epeco acoe ep coc, ep oa, o oya o o o xpcaca coeo eca oc. Peo Pocc peecoa yao oao ep, ocaee xpcaco apoe. Ta cea ae. opae paocae aco coo eopa . B aae XX ea peo peeccac pocxo y ac oe yo pyy ee e coo apoo , coo yypo . ooy, a ye oop, o coao eece. Pacy coo yxooo paoe capoo pa ceeco o yxoo eeoc . Ho eep coepeo eepo oae oeae ce pycce peoo-ococe e, ope o e oe oec eoy, oaoy paoca.

pee ceo eep eepo yopee ep oocaeco, oop e pe ee, coa ce opeeeo xpcac. oop o eo-xpcaax ep oyc, ocoo pe e o xpcaax, oope ep oooc oo opeco ox xpcace eep pce B.Poaoa, eccopo eaoo ce cae, o opeeeoo paa xpcaca, oopoo copee oo o aa eo-o. Moo o yaa oo eooce oe eepa, o cop aea a e yxoe e, o oopx e, cy co cyapo e paae oeo yax ocoeoce. Hyo poe caa, o c eoe, pce oco oya, epe cocooc paa yaoe. eo eep ooaeo eaeo e oae, o ocao poe oc xpcaco . ay pa oc o o-oy ooece c yao oo. O o-oy yae, o oa Eaee pae oa co a py co, o oo caaec po pa oc. Ho pae eycoo eoc co eoeeco oc, a opaa oo oeo, eoycoc opae c eoeeco oc, a co cpeco opye, e ocoe xpcaca. eo xpcaco y, o eoeeca ya co opoe cex apc pa, xpcaco ecoeo aeo o coy yaoy eoey eo yao . eoe, cea ya. eoope, xpcaca oee epa yoa peaoc, e oeco. ee oe aco oe epoa coe o, o e oc, oc cee o oe peaoa epa ec ycoe peaa oc. eo oc paa eo , ec aoeae eoc. oc ec yxoo-peoa aeop oaae aay ocaey epe eoeo. oc ec coce oe, e yy, oop ec aeop ooeca coooeca, oea ac poa oeca. oc e e oe ac eo-o, e oo oeca, o pa, oa ec eoe[6]. yo coe oa pae py yxooy, a e . Bc opaeoc epaa oyceco oco caa c eoae poe oc. o pepaae oy cy eyapyy, paey eoey. oeca, coacecoo oeca, coaoo acca, poeapaa, eaec yp, o, a pea eoe opaec.

oe caa ecoo co o eepo cooa eepo ox o. Eo o coae yopeea o epoo, coa apcopa, ooe cpeeeoe . . O cae e copoo eoao apcopa, o o ceo. Copoa eoao apcopa ay oxy yo o pa . B eceoc c copoo ecacooo oeca, . e. o ooe aoee o oyy. Ho p o e c copoo apcopaecoo aaa, a aeceoo aaa eoeeco oece, eo oo, a e accooo cocooo aeceoo aaa, . e. copoo yxooo apcopaa. Kaccoe epaeca o peooe eoeeco oece, o e epaeca o oo oo cee c. eoe oe oac o eoea o co aeca, a e o coey coaoy ooe, accooy cocooy. Kaeceoe, . e. oe apcopaecoe aao e o e oe cey eoeecoo oeca, o oo a pa aoee c oece eccaccoo, oa acco ye e ye, o acc apa acpy e aecee pa ey , ea x e pea, a coec. Bcee ooee oece eoe aa e cy x aec coeo yxooo apcopaa, a cy co, oopy cooaa ey paeoc accy coco. c copoo xpcacoo epcoaa, a coce e yaa, oop paee py oc. B oece ypyao-aaceco oc oeaec epyec, paccapaec, a ao. ya pooooe xpcaco ee oe e, peaa e oc peoaae oee e. Koa oop, o p e ooy cpeeeo, o o coce e oaae opaa capoy cpeee ye eee ceo eoay. o ec ooaee a oeca, oopo ye cpeee eococ ecy, poooooc yay oo cop, ye opocae ae peooo aaa, xo ope ocye apeooc. eep ae coce e oae oo poea pycco peoo c. a poeaa, e papa c c ypee, yxoo pae paocao ep, opaea opec aaa xpcaca pe. Ocpo caac poea xpcaco apooo c c xpcaco apoooe poea xpcaco yyp xpcacoo . Pycca opeca peoa c oca e oaeoeeca; ooo oy, a cyce Xpce ooeoee pooo yaoe ooee oa eoee, xpcaco eoeece oo poo oeoe, coopoe ooee oa. ooeoeeco ec pooee ooooe. o ca poey ooe Xpcoo c pa a eoeeca, eoeeco yype . e ooeoeeca, a cyoc xpcaca, ao pacpaac aao xpcaco, c ec opa opoee pycco xpcaco c. Xpcaca oco oaec, a oco ooeoeeca, xpcooeca. B e peooeac pa peeco cxoaceco c, a paoaceco c ooo pee. Bc a poeaa coepeo ya eoa eepy. B aece paaca coaoo yapca o cy o aeoc eoc e yxa c ceo o a coa peyaa. Ho pe oy oe ayae e coepeo paee yxy c, oa eoe ae poe ceo o e ocyece oe ae aa, o e, e oe yoe aee aa yxa c. poeaa pycco peoo c opaea oee oaeoy yyey, oa acye ooece opoc yy pee, oa opaea e.

eep epe o co ay a aaey y epo o ae e, oeo, oe peyeco epe apape paocao epo. Ey aec, a o aaoc a aae, o ee o ep ec o-o poe pycco peopa, o oa a poecay. o oa. Haoo peopaooo e o pe peo y ac e o. Pyooe o ep, oopa ceac oepa coe aee, e cx opecx peox e. o o pcocoee ac paocaoo yxoeca cyecye ac, e peopa, a oop. Ty caaac pa capoo paca epoo epapx y ocyapceo ac. oepo ooy ye e acya aoo yae, o o ea ooc a apapxa epapxo apape ep, aac epo oae pcoco ac y, o e c c ..., oopoe aao pe o ep. o occaaao capoe ooee ey epo ocyapco, pe oep-poypopo e ... Hoa aoe ooee peopaooe ee e aaoc c pccoe oopa, c ooco oaa, oo aaoc c oo, o eo aaa ca ec ep, a e ea epa pyx. oepooe ee ax ox peox e e eo, oo eo pyoo e oopo poe oo, o epo oa pcococ coeco ac. Ho o e ec peoa e. oepo e occ ae o o e, o oye ec xpcaca paa. x epecoa e oy, a ac. epyc opao oee paax peox e, e oepo, oee x ep oy opecy oxy xpcace, ooe e yxa C. a eoea. Ho oepoa ooyc coepeo opaeo, ooy o ca aoo poa oop peoo eoyc. paocaa ep Pocc oa ycao ao-o oopa c cyecye ac, o aec cea poo Cep. epo e oe aac oeco opo c ee o c oope cx co cap peo. Ho epo oa oac a apco ecap. Ocyee epo aacecoo pea, pae epo pa coaa pyooo oeca ca eo . Ho p coeco pee o epe c peo cc, o pepaaec -oee peoa ...

3.

M oxo ocoo poee oya, poee ooe ey eoeo oeco. eep paee ce caoc oyceco ocao oycecoo pee o poe, .. eo e poe eoea ee ye. Ka o y Mapca? Mapc aeae coooo, o oe ca apoooo. Mapc ca poey oeca, o e ca poey eoea, eo eoe ec y oeca, execa y oo. Oeco ec epoeoe, eoe e ec . Taoe yee eoea axoc paeo poope c oe yee Mapca o oeece (VedingIichung) eoeeco , o eyaa. eo ocaec opea ycceoc: ec pepaee eoea y ooecoo poecca pex, o pooo, aaceco cyaa o ec oo . Pea, o co cyae, ec o a, o epa oa ocyece oya a oe apca, oopy Ppcc, ae paccapa eoea, a y oo, ae eyapye eoeecy , a aacec cpo. ooy oo epeopoa o cepo cop, a oop aec Mapc ec, e pooo, ey e a, oy peeye e oo a coae ooo oeca, o a coae ooo eoea. oo eoee, o oo yeo cpyype oo oop coeco Pocc, o o oop ocpa, oceae coecy Pocc. Ho o eoe o c o cyae, ec eoea ca ce eoc. Ec eoea paccapa ce a p cpoeca oeca, ec cpeco ooecoo poecca, o pxoc oop e coo o e ooo eoea, coo o ceoe eoea, . e. o yye poecca eyaa. eoe oaaec e epe y, o pepaaec yepoe, ococoe cyeco. Ho eoe ye o cyae, ec eoe ee epee y, ec o ec yxooe cyeco, ae ooe eoea e, a ec oecea y. eoe coe epe y pace e oo pee, o eoc. Ec eoe eo poe poecc pee, ec e e eo o eoc eoc, o opa eoea, opa oc e oe yepa. Koy coe aepacec-aececo ope eo oe eoea ooy pee, eoe pexo oe po6oo pee a oe ec cpeco oceyeo oea. ooy eoe oaaec e ypeeo cyecoa, eoeeca eyapyec. Mapc oapyae poecc yaa. Mapca, ocoeo y oooo Mapca, oa e c ee ce eeoo eaa, oooc ooo yaa. O aa c occa po eyaa. Ho ae o ca oaac yee poecco eyaa, ooe eoey oy yaceoa pex aaa. B pycco apce-ee o poecc eyaa oe ee ae o oycoe ce ocaoo ooe pyccoo oya. B pycc oy o e pa pyccoo yaa, eeo xpcace co, a pyccoo ayaa, caoo c pycc ocyapce acoo, cea paccapa eoea, a cpeco. Mapc cae o ye opy. Hooe oeco, o eoe poaec o apoca a , ya ooo eoea opayec opaex aeo, eac, ec, aceca. o eoaa ee apce, op ca aeo. o aeec epexo opo, a ce. e oe pace ce, o cococye poeapco peo, pyoo opeee pa o e ae. Oca ee, o e opaae cpeca, ce cpeca. Hpace oe eoeeco epe coe caocoeoe aee. o ec ecoea eyaa. e, oopo opaac ce cpeca, ec e eoe, e o eoe, e ooa eoeoc, a oa opaa oeca. eoe ec cpeco o oo opaa oeca, a e oa opaa oeca cpeco eoea.

cxec oyca opeeec pee ceo e, o eo p peo paeec a a poooox aep Opya Apaa, apco cea apco e cx oeo. o o axec ya, oop p o ooeo oyec oceca opo. apco poeapaa ec ceoe apco Opya, apco e ypya eoe apco Apaa. pecae eoo apca ce ooeo cpee eoo apca. aa, eepoc, ecooc aceco oyca po paeoo a opeeec e, o o ycye ce ocae epe apco caa e oe epeoc oo . Ho p o o aoc opaeo acoc o apca caa, o a, o aaa ypya. O e oe e paa, e opaex yc oy pay, o epe aoc, oa paa e. ec paa e, paa yo ya. poecc peee ca c o opeoc coa accooo . Ec acco pa ce ooaeo oy eo o ocyec, o oycec aoc oe ce . Peoo aoc aeo cee ca c opae ooee pooy. oa cac opoc, ao epe oy eceo pae yyey opae yyey. eccopo o oee opae yyey, e a, oop y coce ec epexooe ee, c oyo caa poa poea. Ho oye co ca acoc o pooo, ea eac pooy, o co poa y aaa ypya. Koyc e oy oe eac o x aa . Heac cea opaea pooy cea ac o pooo. eoe oxa aeo eac e oe opae yyey, oo . Too o opaae eoea yyey, ocooae o eo coaoc po ec coo opeca oo, ye . B oycax ec cpaoe peoaae eac a o. He eo a x oo y a o, o y epa oo pooo. yx oya, pe oya, oco oya axpcace ayacece. Ho coao-ooeco ccee oya ec oa o pa, oopa oe oe coacoaa c xpcaco, o co cyae oee, e aaceca ccea, oopa ec caa axpcaca. Koy pa pe aaa. e aa aaa oa epay oya, o ea oee peeo pay oya. Hepay oycecoo yxa, epay yxooo paca oy oa e xpcae, oope e oy aoope ae epeco ypyao-aacecoo pa. eo aaceca ccea pee ceo paaae oc eyapye eoeecy , pepaae eoea e oap, e ooae aa o cce oa oyco opa oc eyaa eoeeco . eo ycpao-aaceca oxa oa eoea ac oo ee e ooae ee aea y oyco eaeco ce, o e o xee eo ye eoe. Bopoc o xee e ec opoc aepa, o opoc o xee ox x, cex e, ec yxo, peo opoc. He o xee eo ye eoe, o ae o xee, xe oe cex. Oeco oo opaoao a, o xe cex oa eo yxo opoc pecae epe eoeo o ce coe ye. Heoyco ocoa opy a yxoe epec yxooe opoee a o, o xe aeo ac eoeeca e ye oecee. o , cpaeo a aececy pea opae yxa. Xpcae o poyc peo yaee eeap, acy ya e, opoo acc e, a e pepa y c o pe yxoo o. Koy ec eoe oyee xpca, aco aoae o Xpce Eae, o poeeco eee xpcace.

B ooe xoceo oo ycao a poooox pa. O p ac: xoceo pecey co epec o ye cococoa xoceoy pa eoo, o ye oo oeca, a, ocyapca. Taoa ypyaa eoo xoca. pyo p ac: xceo cy py, oecy, eoy oa oy ce, o ee yo . Bpo p yepae oy o eo paoa. Coepeo co, o opo p ooe xoceo oee cooecye xpcacy, e ep. ep p co e axpcac, a axpcac ec pcoe oe o coceoc. ypyaa oeca oo, yaa ooecoo eoea ee ooece ao, cae opo p yoec. Ho ooec eoe pexo. oe ooa oa oa pya, oee cooecya ococy eoea. Oo co: poea a e oe poeo oo opaa oeca, oa eeo ec poea oo yeo cpyyp eoea, poea ooo eoea. Ho o eoe e oe pooe exaec ye, o e oe aoaec peyao eco opaa oeca. Hoa yea cpyypa peoaa yxooe epeocae eoea. Ha poey epeoca oy pye opa ooe ae, o y eo e oo yxox c. He coa ooo eoea ooe oeco, o xocey oae eo oo ocyapca. o ec e coaa xoca, a ppaa xoca. Koy o ope, ao o c Pocc, ec pa . o ec ee yoa eaaa, oop a ce aaae co a. Coecoe ocyapco, a ye oop, ec eceoe pe oceoaeoe, o oa oeeoe oaapoe ocyapco. o ec pacopa e oaa pooo, oa opa capo epp ocyapca pycco cop. Ho oae xoceo , a coaoo cye, coce e oaae pepae coo xoceoo cyea oa, e oaae pa ocyapca ece xoce cyeo. eccopo ac poeoc, aoee pyo, oa epe ocyapcy, o apy c xoce cyeo oa paa ooepa e, pyoo ca oe eoe, ocae opaae oeca yco, cae oooc cyaa cox x. ocyapco p o ye e opoe ocpeece y, pae e oyca yee eoea eoeo. B o aay e xo opoo ocaaac a x opocax. Bao oo oe, o a e ec eceo opo oo opaa oeca. oee cooecye cooe eoeecoo yxa e oceca, a paceca coaa ccea. Moceca coaa ccea cea ee pa yee eoeeco oc. Mo apccco cce ec ee a ee. Mo oaapoo ocyapca o co cyae ecoec c xpcaco, o pepaae ocyapco epo. peco epoeca opa xpca po acox pa apca ecap, oye ae. B o ope xpcaco oe occ ocooc o ea apca ecap, oopa e a ep co pee . Xpcco pecaec e coe c ceo, oopy aa cceo epcoacecoo coaa, coeeo p oc, a epxoo eoc, c po paco ooc e. p o eoxoo ea pae, oopoo e eae oy, pae ey ocyecee cpaeoc oeceo , peoaa oe pye, ocyecee paca e, x ooo oe oya, peoaa cooy eoea ece aoa,

xoe oaa coe e, o pycc oy oee paoe, e ooeo ya, ec pacopa eopa capo pycco eccaco e. Koy aao Epoe coepeo py ee, ecop a cxoco apccco . C paoo-pycc xapaepo oya ca eo ooee opaee copo: c oo copo cae apca oeo eoco pa, cocooc epe ocyce ypyaoc, c pyo copo acoa ocyapca eco, caoe coae pa eoea oacoc eoo oea. pyx cpaax oy, cyae o eo ocyece, oe eee ecoec ooe o ce ooe eoeeco , eee eoc, eee peey pee, oee ceyp oee ypya o cey yxy. poeaa oya cococye poye xpcaco coec oa pec pacp opecoo coaoo xpcaca e cce oa xpcca, a coao pe, a cce pap xpcaco pa ooe coao . o ye oaa ocooee o coao paca, oopo axoc xpcacoe coae. Mp epeae oacoc eyaa eoeeco , oyaa caoo eoea. Caoe cyecoae eoea axoc o oacoc co copo cex poecco pocxox pe. poc o oacoc oe oo yxooe ypeee eoea. Koa xpcaco ooc pe, o oo ao eoea o oacoc, cao c eooape. eoe axoc o ac ocecx c, epax eo eoo yxo ppo. Xpcaco yxoo cocpeooo eoea oo cyy eo oy. Ta oooea a oooc ac eoea a . Teep xpcaco o pao a eoea, eo eo opa o o epae eo eooap, o opaoe eo cap ocec o exec ca. Ho o oe cea xpcaco opoeoe, opecoe, epoe coey popoecoy yxy, opaeoe apcy oey.

Koe.


 

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2001,

 



[1] C. e o

[2] C. poca a pe po pe .

[3] o ypae o .

[4] C, Gead Walte Les oigines du Communisme.

[5] C. Julius Hecke Religion and Communism Moscow-Diologues.

[6] C. y p oeo. ap, 1934.